Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae: Family Description

Out there, thousand and millions of species exist. Among them, around two lakh species are angiosperms (flowering plants). Taxonomists classified them into a different hierarchy, based on their similarities and dissimilarities.  Let’s go through the description of some common flowering plants belonging to the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae.

Fabaceae

Family Fabaceae is large family including plants which are economically important. The family Fabaceae also was known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae since it is the pea or legume family. It consists of around 5000 species of dicotyledons which are widely distributed all over the world.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Dicotyledons with taproot with root nodules.

Stem: Erect or climber; Fabaceae include shrubs, herbs, trees and majorly climbers.

Leaves: Petiolate, pinnately compound or simple; pulvinus leaf base, stipulate; reticulate venation.

Fabaceae plant

Floral Characters

Inflorescence: Racemose.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, zygomorphic, perigynous, bracteate/ ebracteate.

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; imbricate aestivation.

Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary aestivation.

Androecium: Ten stamens (9+1), diadelphous, anther dithecous.

Gynoecium: Superior ovary, monocarpellary, unilocular, marginal placentation, single, sort -style and flat, hairy-stigma.

Fruit: Legume.

Seed: One or more, non-endospermic.

Floral formula:

Fabaceae floral formula

Floral diagram:Fabaceae

Economic importance:

  • Pulses (gram, moong, soya bean)
  • Medicine (muliathi)
  • Edible oil (soya bean, groundnut)
  • Fibres (sun hemp)
  • Dye (Indigofera)
  • Fodder (Sesbania, Trifolium)
  • Ornamentals (lupin, sweet pea)

Solanaceae

Solanaceae is an economically important family which is also known as the potato family. Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family. The vegetative and floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of Solanaceae are discussed below.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Taproot system.

Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.

Leaves:  Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.Solanaceae plant

Floral characters

Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous.

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation.

Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed.

Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation.

Fruit: Berry/ capsule.

Seed: Numerous, endospermous.

Floral formula:

Solanaceae floral formula

Floral diagram:Solanaceae - flowerdiagram

Economic Importance:  The economic importance of some plants belonging to Solanaceae is as follows:

  • Source of food (tomato, brinjal, potato)
  • Spice (chilly)
  • Medicine (belladonna, ashwagandha)
  • Fumigatory (tobacco)
  • Ornamentals (Petunia)

 

Liliaceae

Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots and is also known as the ‘lily family’. The vegetative and floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of the family are discussed below.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Fibrous root system.

Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs or rhizomes.

Liliaceae Plant

Leaves:  Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.

Floral characters

Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present.

Perianth: Indistinctive sepal and petal; six petals (3+3), often united sepals; valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).

Gynoecium: Syncarpous, tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation.

Fruit: Berry or often Capsule.

Seed: Endospermic seeds.

Floral formula:Liliaceae floral formula

Floral diagram:Liliaceae floral diagram

Economic Importance: Many plants belonging to this family are useful.  Few of them are listed below:

  • Source of medicine (Aloe)
  • Ornamentals (tulip, Gloriosa)
  • Vegetables (Asparagus)
  • Colchicine (Colchicum autumnale)

For video lessons on families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae, visit Byju’s.


Practise This Question

Three floral diagrams are given here. Their respective families are assigned in the answer key. Find out the families to which these diagrams belong to