Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae: Family Description


According to the plant taxonomists analysis report, it has been estimated that a total of 2 to 3 million plant species exists on our planet. Among them, around two lakh species are angiosperms (flowering plants) and others include gymnosperms, bryophytes, hydrophytes and other vascular and non-vascular plants. Taxonomists classified various plants species into a different hierarchy, based on their similarities and dissimilarities. 

Here in this article, let’s go through the description of some common flowering plants belonging to the families of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae.

Also refer: Classification of Plants Based On Growth Habits

Solanaceae

Solanaceae is an economically important family which is also known as the potato family. Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family.
The vegetative parts, root system, floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of Solanaceae are discussed below.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Taproot system.

Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.

Leaves:  Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.

Floral characters

solanaceae
Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous.

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation.

Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed.

Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation.

Fruit: Berry/ capsule.

Seed: Numerous, endospermous.

Economic Importance

The economic importance of some plants belonging to Solanaceae is as follows:

  • Source of food-tomato, brinjal and potato
  • Source of Spice-chilly
  • Sources of Tobacco -Nicotiacum
  • Ornamental Plants -Petunia
  • Medicinal plants – belladonna and ashwagandha

Also refer: Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Seeds

Fabaceae

Family Fabaceae is a large family of the Plant Kingdom, including plants which are economically important. The family Fabaceae also was known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae since it is the pea or legume family. There are around 5000 species of dicotyledons which are widely distributed all over the world.

Listed below are the morphological and floral descriptions of the Fabaceae family.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Dicotyledons with taproot with root nodules.

Stem: Erect or climber; Fabaceae include shrubs, herbs, trees and majorly climbers.

Leaves: Petiolate, pinnately compound or simple; pulvinus leaf base, stipulate; reticulate venation.

Floral Characters

fabaceae

Inflorescence: Racemose.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, zygomorphic, perigynous, bracteate/ ebracteate.

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; imbricate aestivation.

Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary aestivation.

Androecium: Ten stamens (9+1), diadelphous, anther dithecous.

Gynoecium: Superior ovary, monocarpellary, unilocular, marginal placentation, single, sort -style and flat, hairy-stigma.

Fruit: Legume.

Seed: One or more, non-endospermic.

Economic Importance

Many plants belonging to this family are useful. Few of them are listed below:

  • The plants of this family are unique and have root nodules which contain nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen or ammonia.
  • Source of Food- Pulses like gram, moong, soya bean)
  • Medicinal Plants – Muliathi
  • Source of Edible oil – Soya bean and groundnuts.
  • Sources of Timber and Fibre- Sunnhemp
  • Sources of Dye – Indigofera
  • Source for Fooder or Livestock Feed -Sesbania and Trifolium
  • Ornamental plants-Lupin and sweet pea.

Liliaceae

Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots and is also known as the ‘lily family’. The vegetative parts,root system , floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of the family are discussed below.

Vegetative Characters

Root: Fibrous root system.

Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs or rhizomes.

Leaves:  Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.

Floral characters

Lilieaceae

Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.

Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present.

Perianth: Indistinctive sepal and petal; six petals (3+3), often united sepals; valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).

Gynoecium: Syncarpous, tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation.

Fruit: Berry or often Capsule.

Seed: Endospermic seeds.

Economic Importance:

Many plants belonging to this family are useful.  Few of them are listed below:

  • Source of Medicine -Aloe vera, Smilax and Colchicine
  • Ornamental Plants -Lilium, tulips, Gloriosa and Ruscus
  • Source of food (or) Vegetables-Asparagus
  • Bulbs of Allium cepa and the roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavouring agents.

Also refer: Monocot And Dicot Plants

Learn more about flowering plants, and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology

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