Out there, thousand and millions of species exist. Among them, around two lakh species are angiosperms (flowering plants). Taxonomists classified them into a different hierarchy, based on their similarities and dissimilarities. Let’s go through the description of some common flowering plants belonging to the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae.
Family Fabaceae is large family including plants which are economically important. The family Fabaceae also was known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae since it is the pea or legume family. It consists of around 5000 species of dicotyledons which are widely distributed all over the world.
Root: Dicotyledons with taproot with root nodules.
Stem: Erect or climber; Fabaceae include shrubs, herbs, trees and majorly climbers.
Leaves: Petiolate, pinnately compound or simple; pulvinus leaf base, stipulate; reticulate venation.
Flower: Complete, bisexual, zygomorphic, perigynous, bracteate/ ebracteate.
Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; imbricate aestivation.
Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary aestivation.
Androecium: Ten stamens (9+1), diadelphous, anther dithecous.
Gynoecium: Superior ovary, monocarpellary, unilocular, marginal placentation, single, sort -style and flat, hairy-stigma.
Seed: One or more, non-endospermic.
- Pulses (gram, moong, soya bean)
- Medicine (muliathi)
- Edible oil (soya bean, groundnut)
- Fibres (sun hemp)
- Dye (Indigofera)
- Fodder (Sesbania, Trifolium)
- Ornamentals (lupin, sweet pea)
Solanaceae is an economically important family which is also known as the potato family. Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family. The vegetative and floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of Solanaceae are discussed below.
Root: Taproot system.
Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.
Leaves: Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.
Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum.
Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous.
Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation.
Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation.
Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed.
Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation.
Fruit: Berry/ capsule.
Seed: Numerous, endospermous.
Economic Importance: The economic importance of some plants belonging to Solanaceae is as follows:
- Source of food (tomato, brinjal, potato)
- Spice (chilly)
- Medicine (belladonna, ashwagandha)
- Fumigatory (tobacco)
- Ornamentals (Petunia)
Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots and is also known as the ‘lily family’. The vegetative and floral characters, floral formula and floral diagram of the family are discussed below.
Root: Fibrous root system.
Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs or rhizomes.
Leaves: Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.
Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.
Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present.
Perianth: Indistinctive sepal and petal; six petals (3+3), often united sepals; valvate aestivation.
Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).
Gynoecium: Syncarpous, tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation.
Fruit: Berry or often Capsule.
Seed: Endospermic seeds.
Economic Importance: Many plants belonging to this family are useful. Few of them are listed below:
- Source of medicine (Aloe)
- Ornamentals (tulip, Gloriosa)
- Vegetables (Asparagus)
- Colchicine (Colchicum autumnale)
For video lessons on families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae, visit Byju’s.