Vitamins And Minerals- Vitamins are organic compounds, found in natural foods which are required for normal growth and maintenance of the body. Both humans and animals require vitamins for their growth. Minerals are also organic compounds found in nature.
The word vitamins is a combination of latin words “vita” and “amine” which means life and nitrogen respectively. Casimir Funk discovered a substance that helps for growth and maintenance of the body and named it in 1884.
Vitamins acts as a catalyst in generation of energy by utilizing carbohydrates and fats properly. Humans cannot live without vitamins and human body cannot produce it on its own ( except vitamin D and Vitamin B3). So it should be taken in required quantities through other sources such as food we take, vitamin capsules etc. Vitamins can be found in major foods like meat, leafy vegetables, fruits etc.
Vitamin deficiency may cause some diseases and overdose also causes diseases.
Types of Vitamins
Vitamins are of two types
- Fat soluble – which are dissolved in fat
- Water soluble – which are dissolved in water
Here is a table that illustrates the type of vitamins, sources, and diseases due to vitamin deficiency.
|Name||Solubility||Food Sources||Deficiency Diseases|
|Vitamin A||Fat||Green leafy vegetables, ripe yellow fruits, guava, milk, liver, nuts, tomatoes, oranges, carrots, broccoli, watermelon etc.||Hyperkeratosis, night blindness, and keratomalacia|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)||Water||Fresh fruits, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, corn, cashew nuts, wheat, milk, black beans, dates etc.||Beriberi|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||Water||Banana, dates, mushrooms, grapes, mangoes, peas, pumpkin, popcorn etc.||Slow growth, sore eyes|
|Vitamin B3 (Niacin)||Water||Meat, fish, eggs, milk products, cereals, mushroom, guava etc.||Pellagra|
|Vitamin C||Water||Fresh fruits, black currant, broccoli, goat milk and chestnuts.||Scurvy|
|Vitamin D||Fat||Fish, egg, liver, beef, cod, chicken breast etc.||Rickets and Osteomalacia|
|Vitamin E||Fat||Potatoes, pumpkin, guava, mango, milk, nuts, seeds etc.||Heart problems, Hemolysis and sterility|
|Vitamin K||Fat||Tomatoes, broccoli, chestnuts, cashew nuts,beef, lamb, mangoes, grapes etc.||Haemorrhage|
Minerals are organic compounds that helps in growth of human body. Minerals are essential for human body to work properly. Deficiency of minerals leads to disorders.
List of Minerals, their sources and functions
|Calcium||Blackberries, dates, milk, egg, pomegranate, almonds, wheat, soybeans etc.||Important for healthy bones, teeth and immune system|
|Sodium||Passion fruit, onions, fresh fruits, sweet potato, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, eggs, milk etc.||Helps in regulation of blood pressure and blood volume. It also helps in proper functioning of nerves and muscles|
|Iodine||Sea foods, iodised salt, milk and foods that are grown in iodine rich places||Promotes healthy hair, nails, skin and teeth. Also controls body weight and growth|
|Phosphorous||Passion fruit, pomegranate, dates, beef, tuna, oats etc.||Phosphorous along with calcium is necessary in formation of bones, teeth etc.|
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