Diseases - Types of Diseases and their Symptoms

Over the years, science and technology has improved to such an extent that we have been able to identify the causes, symptoms and cures for various diseases with a high degree of success. And this is supported by considerably long average lifespan and lower mortality rates. But what exactly is a disease?

What is a Disease?

A disease is a condition that deteriorates the normal functioning of the cells, tissues, and organs. Diseases are often thought of as medical conditions that are characterized by their signs and symptoms. Today, there are various ways to classify diseases –

Classification of Diseases

Type

Explanation

Example

  1. Anatomic Classification

This type refers to the affected organ or tissue

Heart disease

  1. Topographical Classification

Further classified into types such as vascular disease, chest disease, gastrointestinal disease, and abdominal diseases. These are then handled by specializations in medicine that follow these topographical classifications

An ENT specialist (Ear-Nose -Throat)

A Gastroenterology specialist etc.

  1. Physiological Classification

This type includes diseases that affect a process or a function (such as metabolism, digestion or respiration)

Diabetes

  1. Pathological Classification

This type considers the nature of the disease. For instance, cancer is associated with uncontrolled cell growth, and there are variations or types in the disease.

Neoplastic diseases (uncontrolled cell growth that are characteristic of cancer)

Inflammatory diseases (autoimmunity)

  1. Epidemiological Classification

This classification refers to the rate of occurrence, distribution and the control of the disease in a population.

Epidemic diseases such as plague and Influenza pandemic of 1918–1919

  1. Statistical Classification

It refers to the classification of diseases based on analysis of the numbers of new cases in a time frame, and the number of cases of a disease that is prevalent at a specific time frame.

  1. Etiological Classification

It classifies the diseases based on the cause, or the origin.

Bacterial diseases, viral diseases, fungal diseases etc.

  1. Juristic Classification

This type of classification is prominently used for the purposes of law. It arises when cause of death is not apparent or unexplained.

Cause of death from an illness is occupational or hereditary, etc

Based on these above classifications, a disease may fall into any number of these classifications.

Types of Diseases

Acquired Diseases

Such diseases are acquired after birth. They are further grouped into two types, namely:

  • Communicable diseases
  • Non-communicable diseases

Communicable Diseases

Diseases that spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. They are usually caused by microorganisms called pathogens (fungi, rickettsia, bacteria, viruses, protozoans, worms). When an infected person discharges bodily fluids, pathogens may exit the host and infected a new person (sneezing, coughing etc).

Examples include Cholera, chicken pox, malaria etc.

Non-communicable Diseases

These diseases are caused by pathogens, but other factors such as age, nutritional deficiency, sex of an individual, and lifestyle also influence the disease. Examples include Hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. They do not spread to others and they restrain within a person who has contracted them.

Cancer Cells

Cancer is caused when uncontrolled growth occurs in certain tissues of the body. It can be classified depending upon the type of cell that has been initiallyaffected. Tumours consist of living cell and therefore, in order to survive, it makes a new blood vessel that enables the cancerous cells to receive essential oxygen and nutrients. This process of forming a new blood vessel is called angiogenesis. It can also enable these cancerous cells to spread throughout the body using the circulatory system. This process is termed as an invasion.

Some of the common types of cancer include breast cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer etc.

Degenerative Diseases

They are mainly caused by the malfunctioning of vital organs in the body due to the deterioration of cells over time. Diseases such as osteoporosis show characteristics of degenerative diseases in the form of increased bone weakness. This increases the chances of broke fractures.

When degeneration happens to the cells of the central nervous system, such as neurons, the condition is termed as a neurodegenerative disorder. Alzheimer’s is a prominent example of this disorder. Degenerative diseases are usually caused by ageing and body wear. Others are caused by lifestyle choices and some are hereditary.

Allergies

An allergic reaction arises when the body becomes hypersensitive to certain foreign substances called allergens. This usually happens when the immune system reacts abnormally to any seemingly harmless substances. Common allergens include dust, pollen, animal dander, mites, feathers, latex and also certain food products like nuts and gluten. Peanuts and other nuts have the capability to cause severe allergic reactions that may induce life-threatening conditions such as difficulty in breathing, tissues swelling up and blocking the airways and anaphylaxis shock.

Other common and less life-threatening symptoms include coughing, sneezing, running nose, itchy and red eyes, skin rashes. One of the best examples of this allergic reaction is Asthma. Sometimes, bee stings, ant bites also trigger allergies. Consumption of shellfish and certain medication can induce allergic reactions.

Asthma is a chronic disease, mainly affects the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs. One of the factors responsible for this is airborne allergens such as pollens or dust. Symptoms include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and cough.

Deficiency Diseases

They occur due to the deficiencies of hormones, minerals, nutrients, and vitamins. For example diabetes occurs due to inability to produce or utilize insulin, goiter is mainly caused by the iodine deficiency, kwashiorkor is caused by lack of proteins in the diet. Vitamin B1 deficiency causes beriberi.

Goiters

It is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland by blocking the esophagus or other organs of the chest and neck. This causes difficulty in breathing and eating.

Blood Diseases

Blood cells

Blood contains plasma, white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells. When any of these components are affected, it can lead to blood disorders. For instance, the red blood cells are destroyed when a person contracts the sickle cell disease. The red blood cells are distorted into the shape of a sickle (hence, the name) and it loses its ability to carry oxygen. Consequently, this disease is characterized by symptoms similar to chronic anemia, such as shortness of breath and tiredness.

Other disease such as eosinophilic disorders, leukemia, myeloma (cancer of plasma cells in bone marrow), Sickle Cell Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemochromatosis and Von Miller and Disease (blood-clotting disorder) fall under this classification.

General Symptoms: Pale skin, swelling of lymph nodes, fever, bleeding, bruising, skin rashes, etc.

List of some important diseases and their causative agents.

List of Diseases

Disease

Causative Agent

Plague

Pasteurella pestis

Cholera

Vibrio comma (Vibrio cholera)

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

Whooping cough

Bordetella pertussis

Human papillomavirus infection

Human papillomavirus

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hepatitis

Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E viruses

Chickenpox

Varicella zoster virus (VZV)

Meningoencephalitis

Naegleria fowleri (amoeba)

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