Microorganisms are small or microscopic organisms. Although every microbe is not harmful and pathogenic, still there exist numerous fatal microorganisms in the environment. Microorganisms include bacteria, algae, fungi, archaea, viruses, and protozoa. They are very small but they can cause diseases and even lead to death. Some of them are free-living but some are parasites. Thus knowledge of sources and effect of microbes are important to defend them. Let’s take a glance at harmful microorganisms around us.
Except for congenital diseases, all other diseases are caused by certain microorganisms. Such microbes are called pathogens. They may affect or damage the whole body system or some specific tissues or organs. Some human diseases caused by pathogens are polio, cholera, mumps, rabies, malaria etc. Plants and animals are also victims of these microbial effects.
Some microorganisms need vectors or agents for their transmission. Malaria is an example of the harmful microorganism. Here, Anopheles mosquitoes are agents used by the protozoan Plasmodium vivax to transmit their spores. Whereas some directly enter the body through contaminated food, water or air. Most of the pathogenic diseases are communicable and infectious. Once pathogens enter the host body, they utilize the host nutrients; also invade the immune system of the host. These led to the discovery and development of antibiotics and vaccines.
Microorganisms are specific to their host. Some diseases affect only animals like Anthrax but they can be transmitted to human also. Some diseases like Crown gall disease infect plants by certain bacteria and viruses. The diseases affecting animals and plants can decrease quality and yield of the product and may lead to investment loss. Therefore it is necessary to control microbial growth.
The harmful microorganisms not only damage human body but also the food we eat, clothes etc. Sometimes they multiply on food and release toxic products hence cause food poisoning. To avoid food poisoning, food preservation is done in various ways like pasteurization, salting, boiling etc.
Even though microorganisms are helpful and beneficial in various ways, they can be the reason of death in another way. Therefore, it is always beneficial to stay safe and follow healthy routines.
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