Cytoplasm - Structure And Function

In the year 1665, Robert Hooke, an English researcher observed the fundamental unit of life. He coined the term “cell” and is credited with its discovery. Later, many scientists worked on this fundamental unit of life. As a result, the cell theory with three postulates was evolved. According to the cell theory postulates, “A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of any living organism”.  Every organism is either a unicellular or a multicellular organism. And every new cell starts its life as and from a single cell.  The cellular components called cell organelles make the cells a self-sufficient element. Cytoplasm is one among them. Let’s learn more about its structure and functions in details.



Cell organelles are different structures present within cells. All these structures are special and specific to their functions. All cells have three main constituents i.e., plasma membrane, and cytoplasm and the nucleus. The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a bi-lipid membranous layer, separating the cell organelles from its external environment as well as from the other cells. It is the outer covering of a cell where all other parts, including cytoplasm and nucleus, are enclosed. Next, is the nucleus, the largest organelle. It is the remote control of a cell. Lastly, the cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance in which the cell organelles are embedded.

Cytoplasm is one of the basic components of the cell where all the cell organelles are embedded.  It is a semi-liquid jelly-like component that connects the cell membrane and the nucleus. Other cell organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., all are suspended in it. Cytoplasm can be easily observed under a microscope by staining technique.Functionally, it is the site for most of the chemical reactions within a cell. The majority of cellular metabolism takes place here.

The whole cellular content of a living cell is called protoplasm. The nucleus, cytoplasm and all other living components of the cell together make up the protoplasm of a cell.

For more detailed information about cytoplasm and other cells organelle, visit BYJU’S.

Practise This Question

Why are mitochondria and plastids strange organelles?