The cell theory is something we are well familiar with, we’ve all made our acquaintance with the definition of cell theory which states that cell is the basic unit of life. In other words, the cell has been introduced to all of us as the basic building block of life. And the cell theory touches upon three salient features being that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, i.e., unicellular or multicellular organisms, respectively. Secondly, it states that all cells carry out life activities and lastly that new cells arise only from other living cells by the process of cell division. In this section, we will discuss the cell organelles.
Basic Cell Organelles
Furthermore, we proceeded to understand that the plant cell and animal cell were composed of three main components, the cell membrane which is a bi-lipid membranous layer, separating the cell from its external environment to the cytoplasm which is a jelly-like substance in which cell organelles are found and lastly the nucleus which is the largest cell organelle, is dark and round, surrounded by a nuclear membrane and happens to be the control center.
Some of the cell organelles present in both plant cells and animal cells are:
- Endoplasmic reticulum, which is a network of membranous canals that carry materials throughout the cell. It is either rough with ribosomes or smooth and without ribosomes.
- These ribosomes are small particles found in the cytoplasm producing proteins.
- The Golgi apparatus is stacks of flattened membranous stacks that stores proteins.
- Lysosomes, on the other hand, are small sac-like structures which release digestive enzymes that break down food.
- The mitochondria is a round tube like organelle surrounded by a double membrane and are the powerhouse, releasing food energy.
- Vacuoles are fluid-filled organelles enclosed by a membrane, storing food, water, sugar and waste products.
- Cell wall, plastids, and central vacuole are organelles present only in the plant cell.
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