The cell has been defined over and over again as the basic structure of life, as the smallest unit of life capable of replicating independently and most often it has been famously called the “building blocks of life”. In this very same cell biology, which gave us these well-heard definitions, introduces us to an integral component of the cell, the nucleus, its plural happens to be nuclei, it’s a word derived from a Latin word meaning kernel and its structure is easily explained as a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types have no nuclei and a few others have many.
The nucleus is a membrane-bound structure that contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. It is generally the most prominent organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a structure called the nuclear envelope. This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The cell’s chromosomes are also enclosed within it. Chromosomes contain DNA which provides the genetic information necessary for the production of other cell components and for reproduction of life.
The nucleus has been clearly explained as a membrane-bound structure that comprises the genetic material of a cell. It is not just a storage compartment for DNA but also happens to be the home of some essential cellular processes.
First and foremost, it is possible to duplicate one’s DNA in the nucleus. This process has been named replication and creates an identical copy of the DNA. Creating two identical copies of the host or body is the first step in cell division, where each new cell will get its own set of instructions.
Secondly, the nucleus is the spot of transcription. Transcription, on the other hand, is the process of creating different types of RNA from DNA. Transcription would be a lot like making copies of individual pages of the human body’s instructions that can then be passed out and read by the rest of the cell. The central rule of biology states that DNA is copied into RNA, which is then turned into protein.
For video lessons on the topic, download Byju’s-The Learning App.
Practise This Question