Life on the earth exists based on certain functions and processes. There are some processes for obtaining nutrition, some help in procreating offspring. The processes which maintain body functions and are necessary for survival are called life processes. The important life processes are nutrition, transportation, metabolism, reproduction, respiration, and excretion.
Nutrition is the process of taking food by an organism and utilization of food for energy. This is a vital process which helps living beings to obtain their energy from various sources. Nutrients are the substances which provide nutrition. Mode of nutrition varies from one species to another. Plants are autotrophs and they have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. They do photosynthesis to prepare their own food. Animals depend on plants for food. Hence they have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Humans follow the holozoic mode of nutrition.
Transportation and transportation system in plants and animals are entirely different. In animals, transportation is carried out through the circulatory system. This system includes heart, blood, and blood carrying blood vessels. Plants have particular tissues called vascular tissues for the conduction and transportation of materials throughout the plant parts. Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem. Xylem conducts water and minerals from roots to shoot system while phloem transports prepared food from leaves to other plant parts.
The process in which different types of chemical reactions involved in controlling the living state of the cells in an organism. It is broadly classified into catabolism and anabolism.
Catabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is released.
Anabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is stored for further requirements.
The biological process of reproducing their own offspring the continuity of species, generation after generation. The basic types of reproduction are the sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of the two parent.
Asexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of the two parent.
Respiration includes the exchange of gases as well as burning of food. Animals have a well defined respiratory system for respiration. In the process of respiration, glucose is broken down to extract energy. It is a redox reaction which can take place with or without oxygen and takes place in mitochondria of the cell and releases energy in the form of ATP. Respiration is mainly of two types- aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
Elimination of toxic and waste substances from the body is called excretion. Plants produce waste products in the form of two gases i.e. oxygen during photosynthesis and carbon dioxide during respiration. They excrete these gases through a structure called stomata. Animals have an excretory system consisting of a couple of kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra. Kidney has a structural unit called nephron where the blood is filtered. After filtration, pure blood will circulate back to other parts and extracted waste products are passed to the ureter. Urinary bladder collects urine which is excreted through the urethra.
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