Life Processes

The existence of life on the planet earth is mainly based on certain functions and processes. There are certain basic vital processes which are essential for an organism to stay healthy and to maintain the proper functioning of the body organ system, which all are necessary for survival.These basic essential activities performed by an organism are called as life processes. Altogether there are six life processes which predict the condition of life. The important life processes are nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction, and excretion.

Let us know in detail about the different life processes.

Types life processes

Life Processes

  • Nutrition

Nutrition is the process of taking food by an organism and utilization of food for energy. This is a vital process which helps living beings to obtain their energy from various sources. Nutrients are the substances which provide nutrition. Mode of nutrition varies from one species to another. Plants are autotrophs and they have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. They do photosynthesis to prepare their own food. Animals depend on plants for food. Hence, they have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Humans follow the holozoic mode of nutrition.

  • Transportation

Transportation and transportation system in plants and animals are entirely different. In animals, transportation is carried out through the circulatory system. This system includes the heart, blood, and blood carrying blood vessels. Plants have particular tissues called vascular tissues for the conduction and transportation of materials throughout the plant parts. Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem. Xylem conducts water and minerals from roots to shoot system while phloem transports prepared food from leaves to other plant parts.

  • Metabolism

Metabolism is the chemical process in which different types of chemical reactions involved in controlling the living state of the cells in an organism. It is broadly classified into catabolism and anabolism.

Catabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is released.

Anabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is stored for further requirements.

  • Respiration

Respiration includes the exchange of gases as well as burning of food. Animals have a well defined respiratory system for respiration. In the process of respiration, glucose is broken down to extract energy. It is a redox reaction which can take place with or without oxygen and takes place in mitochondria of the cell and releases energy in the form of ATP. Respiration is mainly of two types- aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

  • Reproduction

The biological process of reproducing their own offspring the continuity of species, generation after generation. The basic types of reproduction are the sexual and asexual reproduction.

Sexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of the two parents.

Asexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of the two parents.

  • Excretion

Elimination of toxic and waste substances from the body is called excretion. Plants produce waste products in the form of two gases, i.e. oxygen during photosynthesis and carbon dioxide during respiration. They excrete these gases through a structure called stomata. Animals have an excretory system consisting of a couple of kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra. Kidney has a structural unit called nephron where the blood is filtered. After filtration, pure blood will circulate back to other parts and extracted waste products are passed into the ureter. Urinary bladder collects urine, which is excreted through the urethra.

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Practise This Question

Exchange of blood takes place between blood tissues and capillaries.