Living things are wonderful. Wars, poverty, natural disasters, murders, hunting, etc., happen and exist in the world. But it is still estimated that our earth is the home to around 8 million species. One dies, another comes. It never ends and is a cycle of life. The secret is within us,it is reproduction in organisms. It helps organisms to continue their species. It is a life process like nutrition, movement, circulation, etc. Different modes of reproduction are discussed below.
Modes of Reproduction
Reproduction means procreation. It is the biological process in which an organism ensures its continuation on the earth. In this life process, one or more new offspring are produced from parent organisms. One group of living beings manage to reproduce without a partner while another set of living beings need a mate to reproduce. Depending on the number of parents involved, procreation is of different modes. Every living organism reproduces by either of the two modes i.e. asexually or sexually.
In an asexual reproducing mode, the new offspring are reproduced from a single parent. The offspring produced are identical to each other, both physically as well as genetically. Hence, they are called clones. Moreover, they are exact copies of their parent cell.
Organisms choose to reproduce asexually by different means. Some of the asexual methods are binary fission (e.g. Amoeba, bacteria), budding (e.g. Hydra), fragmentation (e.g. Planaria), spore formation (e.g. ferns) and vegetative propagation (e.g. Onion).
In sexual reproduction, two parents are involved in reproducing a new individual. Offspring is produced by the fusion of gametes (sex cells) from each parent. Hence, the newly formed individual will be different from parents, both genetically and physically. Humans reproduce sexually. The process of fusion of sperm with egg (ovum) to produce zygote is called fertilization. Fertilization is the crucial stage of sexual reproduction. Without fertilization, sexual reproductions will not be complete.
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