In its literal meaning, Reproduction means to reproduce. It is a biological process by which an organism reproduces an offspring who is biologically similar to the organism. Reproduction enables and ensures the continuity of species, generation after generation.

Types of Reproduction

There are various ways how organisms give birth to their offspring. The basic two types are

  1. Asexual Reproduction
  2. Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Binary Fission

Usually, what comes to our mind is that there is a need of two individuals when it comes to reproduction, but in asexual reproduction, a single parent gives birth to offspring. Asexual reproduction takes place with or without the involvement of gamete formation.

Two important modes of asexual reproduction are – 1) Binary fission and 2) Budding

Examples of asexual reproduction in plants are budding of eyes of potato, the rhizome of ginger, bulbil of agave, leaf buds of bryophyllum and offset of water hyacinth.

Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

In sexual reproduction, male and female gametes form to reproduce an offspring. These gametes are either formed by the same individual or by different individuals of the opposite sex.

This process is usually slow and complex compared to asexual reproduction. Another major difference between these two types of reproduction is that the offspring produced through an asexual process is identical with the parent whereas, in sexual reproduction, the offspring are not identical to the parents. This is because, in sexual reproduction, two haploid gametes join together during the process of fertilization to produce a diploid zygote.

Reproduction in Plants

Plant reproduction can occur through sexual or asexual reproduction. Vegetative reproduction primarily involves a vegetative piece of the original plant which reproduces through the process of budding or tillering.

Reproduction of Plants

Flowers in plants produce two types of gametophytes – Male & Female. Within the ovule, the female gametophyte arises. The ovule is a small structure present in the ovary. Funicle is the stalk with which ovule is attached to ovary tissue. The mature pollen grain is the male gametophyte. As flower matures, pollen mother cells (PMC) develop and divide by meiosis to produce haploid microspores.

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Practise This Question

Polyurethane is quite good for cold weather for jackets and blankets. However, thermal emergency blankets or space blankets are often made up of something similar to aluminum foil and used by astronauts to avoid hypothermia when stuck in subzero temperature. Why do you think it is a good choice?