One must understand that anatomy concerning flowering plants is the study of the gross internal structure of plant organs as observed after section cutting. Anatomically, a plant is made of different kinds of tissues. Now a tissue is a group of cells with a common origin. The cells of a tissue usually perform a common function. The plant tissues are broadly classified into meristematic (apical, lateral and intercalary) and permanent (simple and complex).
Types of Tissues
Meristematic tissues are made up of the cells which have the capability to divide. Meristems in plants are restricted to specialized regions and are responsible for its growth. They can be further classified into three, Apical meristem is the one which occurs at the tips of roots and shoots, the primary meristem and helps increase the length of plants. While the Intercalary meristem which occurs between the mature tissue is short lived and capable of forming branches and flowers. The auxiliary bud or the buds which are present in the axils of leaves are responsible for forming branches or flowers. Lastly, the lateral meristem occurs in the mature regions of roots and shoots. It is also known as the secondary meristem and appears later than primary meristem and is responsible for secondary growth.
While the permanent tissues are derived from meristematic tissue and are composed of cells that have lost the ability to divide. They are divided into the simple and complex tissues, which are further divided. The simple tissues constitute the parenchyma which are thin-walled cells with cellulose in the cell wall and performs photosynthesis, storage and secretion. The collenchymas which are formed of closely packed isodiametric cells, providing mechanical support and the sclerenchyma which are formed of dead cells also meant for mechanical support, having two types of cells, fibers, and sclereids. The complex tissues consist of the xylem, which conducts water and minerals to other parts of the plant and the phloem which transports food material to various parts of the plant.
Classification of the Tissue System
The Tissue System is classified into three parts,
- Epidermal tissue system, which includes cuticle, epidermis, epidermal hairs, root hairs, trichomes, and stomata.
- Ground tissue system, made up of parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, forms the main bulk of the plant; and
- Vascular tissue system which is made up of xylem and phloem. The vascular bundles form the conducting tissue and translocate water, minerals and food material.
Monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants show marked variation in their internal structures. They differ in type, number and location of vascular bundles. To learn more download Byju’s – The Learning app.