Chemical Coordination and Integration Class 11 Notes - Chapter 22

Scientists have estimated that the average adult human body has roughly 37.2 trillion cells. To connect, coordinate and ensure communication between these many cells, the body has a unique mechanism – Hormones.

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

Chemical coordination and integration are primarily controlled by the endocrine glands, which secrete various hormones that regulate different body functions. In the animal kingdom, vertebrates have more complex and advanced endocrine systems when compared to invertebrates. Plants do not possess these glands, however, they do secrete plant hormones that control various functions.

Human Endocrine System

In humans, the endocrine system comprises several ductless organs that regulate functions or evoke certain responses in the body. Important endocrine glands which are found in the human body are:

  1. Adrenal Glands
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Pancreas
  4. Parathyroid Gland
  5. Pineal Gland
  6. Pituitary Gland
  7. Thyroid Glands
  8. Thymus Gland
  9. Testes
  10. Ovaries

Questions on Chemical Coordination and Integration

  1. What are hormones? Give examples.
  2. Define endocrine glands
  3. Name the hormone secreted by the adrenal glands.
  4. What is the role of estrogen?
  5. Why is insulin important?
  6. Name the hormone secreted by the ovaries
  7. What is androgen?

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