Neural Control and Coordination Class 11 Notes - Chapter 21

The human brain is one of the most complex organs systems seen in the animal kingdom. It is responsible for interpreting signals and reacting accordingly to the scenario. The most basic unit of the nervous system is called the neuron, which is essentially a nerve cell.

Human Neural System

In humans, the neural system is classified into two parts, namely:

  1. Central Nervous System
  2. Peripheral Nervous System

The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and ganglia that exists beyond the brain and the spinal cord. A simple analogy to represent the two systems would be a tall, branched tree – the central trunk would represent the CNS and the branches that extend outward from this trunk would be the PNS.


The neuron is defined as the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Structurally, the neuron consists of 3 core components, namely:

  1. Cell body
  2. Dendrites
  3. Axon

Neurons are essentially cells that are electrically excitable. In other words, it receives the information, processes it, and reacts according to the information.

Questions on Neural Control and Coordination

  1. Explain the structure of the following with an illustration:
    1. Brain
    2. Ear
    3. Neuron
    4. Eye
  2. What is the function of the cochlea?
  3. Briefly explain how the mechanism of hearing works.
  4. Write a short note on the synapse.

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