Anatomy is the study of the internal structure of an organism. Plant Anatomy is mainly related to structure and studying of an organization of tissues. A tissue is defined as ‘a group of similar or dissimilar cells having the common origin and performing a specific function.” They are mainly three types of tissues namely Secretory tissue, Permanent tissue, and Meristematic tissues or Meristems. In plants, they are two types of tissue, Meristematic tissues or Meristems, and Permanent tissue.
They are two types of permanent tissues namely complex and simple tissue.
Complex Tissues: It consists of phylum and xylem.
- Phloem comprises of following components.
- Fibres of phloem provide mechanical strength to the plant.
- Sieve tubes have perforated ends. that is they are the slender cells placed end to end.
- Phloem parenchyma is living cells that store food.
- Companion cells are elongated cells. They are absent in gymnosperms and usually found in angiosperms.
Xylem: It consists of four elements.
- Xylem parenchyma is living cells that store fats and starch.
- Tracheid is dead cells with lignified and hard walls. They have blunt ends that help in the conduction of water in plants.
- Xylem fibres are lignified with pointed ends. That helps in the conduction of nutrients and water from root to the leaf.
- Vessels are tube-like structures which are dead at maturity. They provide mechanical support to the plant are involved in the transport of water.
It comprises of three types of Simple Tissues.
- Collenchyma is living cells with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
- Parenchyma is simple and unspecialized cells. It is found in Cortex, Pith, Pericycle and Epidermis. They are involved in the storage of food, Photosynthesis etc.
- Sclerenchyma Cells are lignified, long cells with a tapering end. These are dead cells and are involved in mechanical function.
Meristematic Tissue is defined as the group of cells have the capability of the division. There are three types of Meristem. Intercalary Meristem is found on the leaf blades and base of the nodes. Apical Meristem is present on the apices of the root and shoot. Lateral Meristem help plants to grow laterally. Apical Meristems are found in shoot, root or at tips of the plant. They are regarded as actively dividing cells.