Unit 1

Physics
and
Measurement

 Physics, technology, and society, SI units, Fundamental and derived units.
 Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Significant figures.
 Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications.

Unit 2

Kinematics

 The frame of reference.
 Motion in a straight line: Positiontime graph, speed, and velocity.
 Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime, positiontime graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.
 Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector.
 Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

Unit 3

Laws of Motion

 Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion.
 Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
 Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
 Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

Unit 4

Work, Energy
and
Power

 Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy theorem, power.
 The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit 5

Rotational Motion

 Centre of the mass of a twoparticle system, Centre of the mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; the moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration.
 Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
 Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.

Unit 6

Gravitation

 The universal law of gravitation.
 Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
 Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
 Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential and Escape velocity.
 Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

Unit 7

Properties of Solids
and
Liquids

 Elastic behavior, Stressstrain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications.
 Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.
 Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.
 Surface energy and surface tension, the angle of contact, application of surface tension, drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
 Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.

Unit 8

Thermodynamics

 Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature.
 Heat, work and internal energy.
 First law of thermodynamics.
 The second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.

Unit 9

Kinetic Theory of Gases

 The equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
 Kinetic theory of gases: assumptions, the concept of pressure.
 Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit 10

Oscillations and
Waves

 Periodic motion: period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
 Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M, kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum, derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
 Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, the speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
 The principle of superposition of waves, the reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.

Unit 11

Electrostatics

 Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s lawforces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
 Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
 Electric flux, Gauss’s law, and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
 Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
 Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, the combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit 12

Current Electricity

 Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, VI characteristics of Ohmic and non ohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
 Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, the combination of cells in series and in parallel.
 Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.
 Potentiometer: principle and its applications.

Unit 13

Magnetic Effects of Current
and
Magnetism

 Biot Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
 Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid.
 Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
 Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.
 The force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of the ampere.
 Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity, and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
 Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.
 Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para, dia and ferro magnetic substances.
 Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Unit 14

Electromagnetic Induction
and AC

 Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
 Self and mutual inductance.
 Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current.
 AC generator and transformer.

Unit 15

Electromagnetic Waves

 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
 Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X Rays, gamma rays).
 Applications of E.M. waves.

Unit 16

Optics

 Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
 Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle.
 Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
 Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
 Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

Unit 17

Dual Nature of Matter
and
Radiation

 Dual nature of radiation.
 Photoelectric effect, Hertz, and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.
 Matter waveswave nature of the particle, de Broglie relation, and DavissonGermer experiment.

Unit 18

Atoms
and
Nuclei

 Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
 Composition and size of the nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
 Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
 Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission, and fusion.

Unit 19

Electronic Devices

 Semiconductor diode: IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; IV characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
 Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.
 Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
 The transistor as a switch.

Unit 20

Communication Systems

 Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude, and Frequency Modulation.
 Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only)
