|Unit 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory, the concept of the atom, molecule, element, and compound.
- Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision, and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis.
- Laws of chemical combination.
- Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae.
- Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
|Unit 2 States of Matter
- Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
- Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure.
- The concept of the absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases (only postulates).
- The concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities.
- Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
- Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
- Solid State: Classification of solids-molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).
- Bragg’s Law and its applications.
- Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfections in solids.
- Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
|Unit 3 Atomic Structure
- Discovery of subatomic particles (electron, proton, and neutron).
- Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations.
- Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect.
- The spectrum of the hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for the energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model.
- Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
- Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical model of an atom, its important features, the concept of atomic orbitals as one-electron wave functions.
- Variation of Ψ1 and Ψ2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum, and magnetic quantum numbers), and their significance.
- Shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number.
- Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, the extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
|Unit 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
- Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
- Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
- Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory, Its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals; Resonance.
- Molecular Orbital Theory: Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
- Elementary idea of metallic bonding, Hydrogen bonding, and its applications.
|Unit 5 Chemical Thermodynamics
- Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
- First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy, and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity
- Hess’s law of constant heat summation.
- Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization, and solution.
- The second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; Delta S of the universe and Delta G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Delta Go (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
|Unit 6 Solutions
- Different methods for expressing the concentration of a solution: molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), the vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law.
- Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions.
- Colligative properties of dilute solutions, relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure.
- Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties.
- Abnormal value of molar mass, Hoff factor, and its significance.
|Unit 7 Equilibrium
- Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.
- Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid – gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry’s law, a general characteristic of equilibrium involving physical processes.
- Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of Delta G and Delta Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of the catalyst.
- Le Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
|Unit 8 Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
- Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
- Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration.
- Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
- Electrochemical cells: Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement.
- Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change.
- Dry cell and lead accumulator, fuel cells.
- Corrosion and its prevention.
|Unit 9 Chemical Kinetics
- The rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure, and catalyst.
- Elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, the effect of temperature on the rate of reactions.
- Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
|Unit 10 Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting the adsorption of gases on solids: Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
- Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis, and its mechanism.
- Colloidal state: Distinction among true solutions, colloids, and suspensions, classification of colloids: lyophilic, lyophobic.
- Multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids: Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation, and flocculation.
- Emulsions and their characteristics.