Plant Kingdom Class 11 Notes - Chapter 3

Kingdom Plantae or the plant kingdom is the taxonomic rank that includes algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The very first land plants appeared roughly 470 million years ago and over the aeons, a spectacular number of plant biodiversity has evolved.

What are Plants?

Plant kingdom classification has changed a number of times over the years. For instance, blue-green algae were once considered to be part of the plant kingdom, but today, they are classified under Kingdom Eubacteria. Similarly, lichen was once considered a plant, however, they are composite organisms. In other words, lichens are comprised of two individual organisms – a fungus and a plant. Hence, they cannot be classified under one single kingdom.

Prominent Kingdom Plantae examples:

  • Aglae – Giant kelp, Irish moss, green algae
  • Bryophytes – Common liverwort, pincushion moss, Java moss
  • Pteridophytes – Royal fern, clubmosses, horsetails
  • Gymnosperms – Blue spruce, Mediterranean cypress, white spruce
  • Angiosperms – Cactus, rose plants, nightshade

Important Questions for Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom

  1. How are algae classified?
  2. How are angiosperms different from gymnosperms?
  3. Explain heterospory.
  4. Why are blue-green algae not considered to be algae?
  5. Explain the important characteristics of angiosperms.


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