Locomotion and Movement Class 11 Notes - Chapter 20

Types of Movement

Over the aeons, evolution has developed many forms of locomotion and movement, prehistoric squid-like creatures called ammonites used jet propulsion to move around in the ancient seas. Snails use adhesive locomotion, where it slowly contracts and relaxes its muscular foot, propelling itself along a layer of mucus. Humans are bipedal, meaning that they use their hind limbs for locomotion. However, this form of locomotion is not very common in the animal kingdom other than in primates.


Anatomically, an adult human has between 650 and 840 muscles in the body. These muscles are categorized into 3 types, namely:

  1. Skeletal muscle
  2. Visceral muscle
  3. Cardiac muscle

Skeletal System

In an adult, the skeletal system consists of about 206 bones, which are all interconnected via a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The femur is a rather remarkable bone as it can withstand forces of over 4,000 newtons. However, the position and angle of attack can change these numbers.

Important questions for Locomotion and Movement Class 11

  1. Define the following:
    1. Actin
    2. Myoglobin
    3. Visceral muscle
  2. What is the difference between a cardiac muscle and a skeletal muscle?
  3. How does muscle contraction take place?
  4. Differentiate between red muscle and white muscle
  5. How many pairs of ribs does an adult human have?
  6. What is the sternum?

Explore more about muscles, skeletons and movement only on Locomotion and Movement Class 11 Notes – Chapter 20, right here at BYJU’S.

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Practise This Question

Enzymes with cofactors are called __(i)__. Based on the structure and function, the cofactors are grouped as__(ii)__, __(iii)__ and __(iv)__.