All the living organisms exhibit a special characteristic feature of moving whole part or a part of the body from one place to other. This act of exhibiting various motions such as running, walking, jumping, crawling, swimming, etc by the body is known as locomotory movements. Movement is one among the characteristic feature of all the living organisms. Locomotion helps us to move from place to other. In general, animals exhibit the locomotory movements for the sake of food and shelter.
The locomotion also helps us to run through various conditions of the environment and helps the animals to move far from their predators.The movement of the head, limbs, trunk, appendages, etc helps in changing the posture of a human body and thus maintain equilibrium condition against gravity. Consider for example- Swallowing the food implies to the movement of eyeballs and external ear so that you get the information from the outside of environs.
Likewise, the movements in the heart help in the circulation of blood throughout the human body. In human beings, the locomotion and movements of the body are performed by special kind of muscles which are muscular and non-muscular in nature. The locomotory movement in the humans involves the interaction and movements of the tissues and joints such as cartilage, bone, muscles, ligaments, and tendons, etc.
Many multicellular animals consist of muscle fibers for the purpose of movements of the limbs, locomotion and also the movement of the internal organs of the body. The higher animals such as humans, there are two main systems through which the locomotion and the movements occur. The two systems are muscular system and skeletal system. These muscles help in the movement of the appendages and the limbs.
Types of Muscles in Human Body
There are three types of muscles in the human body based on the contractibility, elasticity, excitability, and extensibility. They are as explained below-
- Skeletal Muscles
The skeletal muscles are also called as voluntary muscles and are under control of the human body. These are usually present in the different parts of the body such as the body wall, legs, neck, face, etc. They are also found attached to bones through the tendons. These tendons help in different movements of the body parts and skeleton. These muscle fibers, when seen under the microscope, are in the form of stripes, which are also called as striated muscles. These skeletal muscles are mainly responsible for the movement and locomotion in the human body.
- Smooth muscles
Smooth muscles are also called as involuntary muscles and do not come directly under control of the human body. These are usually supplied by the autonomic nervous system. These smooth muscles consist of the slender type of tapering fibers in non-striated form. These muscles are mainly found in the walls of the internal organs of the human body such as reproductive tract, alimentary canal, blood vessels, etc. These muscles usually assist the body in the movements through the tubular form of internal organs.
- Cardiac muscles
The cardiac muscles consist of muscle fibers which are in short and striated form. The cardiac muscles are in the form of the branch and are found in the heart of the body. These muscles are also called as involuntary muscles.
Skeletal System in Human Body
The skeletal system is the framework of the body that has the bones and is called as the skeleton. The skeletal system provides a definite strength and shape to the human body. The soft inner organs present within the body such as the lungs and heart are also protected by this skeletal system. The main work of skeletal system is to help the body in the locomotion and movement. The different kinds of skeletons are the skull, sense-capsules, facial region, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, bones of the forelimbs, etc. The bones are known to be held by the strong tissues called as the ligaments.
Functions of Skeletal System in Locomotion and Movement
The skeletal system plays a vital role in the locomotion and movement of body parts in the human body. The movement and locomotion depend upon the association of the skeletal muscles present within this skeletal system. The skeletal system has some of the rigid forms of connective tissues called the Bones. The various functions of the skeletal system which help in the locomotion and movement of parts of the human body are given below-
- The skeletal system provides posture and shape to the entire human body
- These muscles provide a framework for the whole body
- It provides a rigid form of surface to attach the muscles to the tendons
- It imparts a kind of protection to the inner organs that are delicate such as the spinal cord, Human brain, and the lungs
- It mainly assists the body in the locomotory movements from one place to another
- The skeletal system helps in the movement of the sternum and the ribs, thus helping in the process of breathing.
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