Digestion and Absorption Class 11 Notes - Chapter 16

Food is an important component for sustenance and growth for any living organism. Humans have evolved specialized systems that can convert food into energy and disperse the same to all cells in the body. The human digestive system is a series of interconnected organs that span from the mouth and ends at the anus.

The Alimentary Canal

The alimentary canal is the entire passage along which the ingested food is broken down into its constituents and are absorbed for use by the body. When all the components of the gastrointestinal tract are stretched out, end to end, it roughly measures 30 feet or about 9 meters. The components are as follows:

  1. Oral cavity (Also called the buccal cavity)
  2. Pharynx (plural: pharynges)
  3. Oesophagus
  4. Stomach
  5. Small intestine
  6. Large intestine
  7. Rectum
  8. Anus

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

Besides the organs in the gastrointestinal tract, there are additional organs and glands that are not directly a part of the digestive system but they provide crucial functions that aid digestion absorbtion or break down of food. These are termed as the accessory organs of the digestive system.

  1. Tongue
  2. Salivary glands
  3. Liver
  4. Gallbladder
  5. Pancreas

Important Question on Digestion and Absorption

  1. State the components of the digestive tract.
  2. Describe the function of the Villi.
  3. Explain the role of pancreatic juice in digestion
  4. What is the meaning of the term “thecodont”?
  5. State the functions of the liver.

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