All living organisms in this ecosystem are divided into a few major kingdoms. Similarly, plants are also classified into different sub-kingdoms and are mainly based on their certain characteristic features and plant taxonomy.
The Classification of Plants are mainly based on two features:
- Botanical type.
- Values or geographical or ecological communities.
Importance of Plants Classification
The main purpose of classifying plants is to ensure that the right plants are correctly named grouped and are identified regardless of where it is on earth. Plants are classified into:
- The evergreens are plants that retain leaves at all times (all year round).
- Woody plants can also be grouped as deciduous or evergreen.
- Deciduous plants are seasonal plants which shed its leaves at the end of the growing season, either during the winter season in the temperate climate or during the dry season in the tropical climate.
Apart from the above features, there are some plant species which can be classified based on their life cycle.
These are plants that complete their life cycle, seed – plant – seed during a single season. They are normally herbaceous. Few examples like Corn, rice, wheat, and pulses are annuals plant.
These are plants that require two years to complete their life cycle. They are normally herbaceous. For example Carrot, cabbage, onions, and beetroot are biennials plant.
These are plants that are long-lived, more than two years and are usually woody or herbaceous. Rose, lavender, dianthus, and lilies are few examples of perennials.
Plant Taxonomy is a system for classifying plants based on their Genetic and Evolutionary relationship. Plant Taxonomy is not a fixed science it continues to change as new information becomes available. Plants are classified within a Kingdom called as the Plant Kingdom.
This current system of classification of plants is a natural system which is based on the evolutionary relationship amid other plants.
It is a group of plants which are primarily evergreen species of the temperate zone. There are about 700 species. They are a group of vascular, non-flowering plants in which produce their seeds without the production of flower and fruits. Some common examples of gymnosperms include pines, cycads, cedars, etc.
They can grow both into big trees, or shrubs, bushes, herbs and also into small flowering plants. The angiosperms are very well distributed all over the world (>250,000 species). Most of the flowering plants are grouped in this division. They normally have seeds that are fully enclosed in a fruit and has broad leaves. It is further subdivided into- Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous. Some common examples of angiosperms include mango trees, roses, jasmine, marry gold, etc.
Monocotyledonous is commonly referred as monocot plants. They are flowering plants with the seed containing one cotyledon and the venation pattern of their leaves includes parallel-veined leaves. Some common examples of monocot plants are rice, rose, corn, sugarcane, tulips, onion, etc. There are around 50,000 species of monocotyledonous or monocot plants.
Dicotyledoneae is commonly referred as a dicots plants. They are flowering plants, mostly grows into herbs, shrubs, and trees with the seed containing two cotyledons and the venation pattern of their leaves includes radiating from a central main vein. Some common examples are figs, eucalyptus trees, potato, tomato, hibiscus, etc. There are around 200,000 species of dicotyledonous or dicots plants.
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