“The study of the immune system, the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses.”
Immunology is a branch of the biology involved with the study of the immune system, components of the immune system, its biological processes, the physiological functioning of the immune system, types, its disorder and lot more.
The immune system acts as a body’s defence system by protecting our body cells, tissues and organs from invading infection through various lines of defence. Overall, the immune system functions by recognising and destroying foreign antigens including the harmful microorganisms and other disease-causing microbes.
Under certain conditions, when our immune system is weak or stops functioning, then this results in various infectious diseases, such as allergies, fever, flu, and may also lead to a dreadful disease like cancer AIDS, etc.
Also Read: Immunity
Let us have a detailed look at Immunology to learn about the immune system, its different parts, functions and other significances of Immunology.
Immune System consists of different types of cells and organs which protect our body against pathogens. Pathogens are defined as everything that does not belong to our body, from parasites to fungi, bacteria, viruses, and haptens. Haptens are molecules that may cause an immune response when comes in contact with a protein. All these cells and molecules are distributed in all the tissues of the body as well as lymphoid organs which eliminate or prevent microbial infectious diseases, decrease the growth of tumours and starts the repairing process of damaged tissues.
The tissues and organs of the immune system act as security forces where cells act as the security guards while molecules act as the guns & bullets and use the communication system to protect you.
Types of Immune System
We, humans, have two types of Immune System and are classified based on its resistance power against the infectious agents.
- Innate Immune System.
- Adaptive Immune System.
Innate and Adaptive Immune System
Immune System fights against microbes.
Innate Immune System is composed of cells and proteins that are always present and are ready to fight against microbes in the infection area. Innate Immune System is present from the time of our birth.
Main elements of the innate immune system are –
- Dendritic cells.
- Phagocytic leukocytes.
- Natural killer (NK) cell.
- Physical epithelial barriers.
- Circulating plasma proteins.
Adaptive Immune System
The Adaptive Immune System is required to fight against pathogens that cannot be controlled by innate immune defences. It is also referred to as the Acquired Immune System because it is acquired during the course of life.
All the components of the adaptive immune system are generally inactive however when activated; these components adjust to the presence of all the infectious agents by proliferating and developing a potent mechanism for eliminating the microbes.
Two Types of adaptive responses are – humoral immunity moderated by antibodies which are developed by B lymphocytes and cell-mediated immunity, moderated by T Lymphocytes.
Immunology and Diseases
Normally, the disease occurs because of fundamental defects in the immune system. In this situation, the immune system is challenged and evoke responses that damage cells and tissues rather than protecting. All the immunodeficiency diseases increase the risk of tumours and infections and are caused by malnutrition, gene mutations, and viruses – HIV.
Also Refer: Antigens and Immunology
Symptoms of Immune Dysfunction
- Bowel disorders.
- Parasite infections.
- Candida overgrowth.
- Allergies and Asthma.
- Frequent colds and flu.
- Autoimmune disorders.
- Painful joints and muscles.
- Herpes (cold sore) outbreak.
- HPV and abnormal PAP smears.
- Rhinitis or a constant runny nose.
- Psoriasis, eczema, hives or rashes.
This is an experimental method used for studying the structure and functions of the immune system. There are different techniques, which includes:
- Immune cell isolation.
- Generation of Antibodies.
- Immuno-blotting and precipitation.
- Isolation and Purification of Antibodies.
Applications Of Immunology
Immunology is widely used in numerous disciplines, including medicine, in the fields of organ transplantation, bacteriology, oncology, virology, parasitology, rheumatic diseases, psychiatric disorders, and dermatology. The Immunology of transplantation mainly deals with the process of transplantation from a donor to the recipient, so that the recipient’s body does not reject the organ.
This was a brief introduction to Immunology, for more information on Immunology, immune system, its techniques, notes for Immunology Class 12, visit us at BYJU’S Biology.