Plants are living organisms upon which different organisms depend for food, shelter, etc. Different parts of plants exhibit different roles. They act as a source of food and oxygen and maintain the ecological balance.
For better understanding, we need to know in detail about the different parts of plants and their functions. Let’s have a glance at the structure of different plant parts and how are they beneficial to the environment.
Parts Of Plants
The main parts of a plant include:
Roots are the underground part of a plant. They are the major part that anchors the plant firmly in the soil. They absorb water and minerals from the soil, synthesise plant growth regulators, and store reserve food material. The apical part of the root is covered by the root cap that protects the root apex.
The direct elongation of radicle leads to the formation of primary roots that grow inside the soil in dicots. It bears lateral roots that are known as secondary and tertiary roots.
In monocots, the primary root is replaced by a large number of roots because it is short-lived. In some plants such as Banyan tree, the roots arise from the parts of the plant and not from the radical. Such roots are known as adventitious roots.
Few plants that grow in swampy areas ave roots growing vertically upwards to get oxygen for respiration. Such roots are known as pneumatophores.
Also Read: Root Modifications
The stem is the part of the plant above the ground. It bears leaves, fruits and flowers. The region where the leaves arise is known as the node and the region between the nodes is known as the internode.
The stem provides support to the plant. They also protect the plant and help in vegetative propagation. A few underground stems such as potato and ginger are modified to store food.
The stem tendrils are spirally coiled and help the plant to climb a support. The axillary buds also get modified into thorns that protect the plant from grazing animals.
The stems of a few plants in the desert areas, such as Opuntia, get modified into thick, fleshy structures that store food and prevent excessive water loss due to transpiration.
The important functions of stem include:
- Support: Primary function of the stem is to hold up buds, flowers, leaves, and fruits to the plant. Along with the roots, a stem anchors the plants and helps them to stand upright.
- Transportation: It is the part which transports water and minerals from the root and prepared food from leaves to other parts of the plant.
- Storage: Stems are one of the storerooms of plants where the prepared food is stored in the form of starch.
- Reproduction: Few stems help in reproduction through vegetative propagation.
Leaves are the most important part of a plant. They contain chlorophyll that helps the plants to prepare their food using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.
They consist of three main parts- petiole, leaf base and lamina.
The petiole keeps the leaf blade exposed to wind and cools the leaf.
The lamina of the leaf contains veins and veinlets that provide rigidity to the leaf blade and help in the transport of nutrients and minerals.
Primarily, leaves have three functions:
- Photosynthesis: Green leaves prepare food for plants by using water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight. This is the process called photosynthesis.
- Transpiration: Other than photosynthesis, leaves play a crucial role in the removal of excess of water from plants through tiny pores called stomata. This is the process of transpiration.
- Reproduction: Leaves of some plants helps in reproduction also. For e.g. leaves of Bryophyllum give rise to a new Bryophyllum plant.
Also Read: Morphology of Leaves
Other Parts of Plants
The other parts of a plant include flowers and fruits.
Flowers are the most beautiful and colourful part of a plant. They are the reproductive part of a plant. A flower has four major parts, namely,
- Petals: It is the colourful part of a flower which attracts insects and birds.
- Sepals: Sepals are green leafy parts present under petals and protect the flower buds from damage.
- Stamens: This is the male part of the flower consisting of anther and filament.
- Pistil: This is the female part of the flower consisting of stigma, style, and ovary.
Fruits are the main feature of a flowering plant. It is a matured ovary that develops after fertilisation. Some fruits are developed without fertilization and are known as parthenocarpic fruits.
Also Read: Modifications of Stem
Thus, we see how different parts of a plant help in the growth and development of a plant. All the plant parts are beneficial and work in coordination with each other.
For more information on different parts of plants, diagrams and their functions keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the different parts of a plant?
The different parts of a plant include- the roots, stem, leaves, fruits, and flowers. They perform different functions and help in the growth of the plant.
What is the main function of roots?
Roots anchor the plant firmly in the soil and help in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil. They also synthesise various plant growth regulators that facilitate plant growth.
How does leaves help a plant to survive?
Leaves contain a green pigment called chlorophyll that helps the plants to prepare their food. They also help in the removal of excess water from the plants by the process called transpiration. The stomata present in the leaves facilitate the exchange of gases.
What are the different types of roots?
The different types of roots include:
- adventitious roots
- prop roots
- fibrous roots
What are the different types of stem modifications?
The different types of stem modifications include: