The condition in which fruits are developed without the formation of seeds. This is mainly due to the absence of fertilization, pollination and embryo development. In botany, parthenocarpy means virgin fruit. These types of fruits are generally seedless. This process of fruits was introduced in the year 1902.
During cultivation, parthenocarpy is introduced along with other
plant hormones including gibberellin acid and it results in maturing of the ovaries
without the process of fertilization and produces bigger and pulpy fruits. This
process is applicable to all kinds of crops from varieties of squash to cucumber and lot more.
Banana is a good example of parthenocarpy. In this natural process, the produced bananas are sterile, developed without the viable ovaries and do not produce seeds, which mean they must propagate vegetative. Pineapples and figs are also examples of parthenocarpy which occur naturally.
Types of Parthenocarpy
Parthenocarpy can be categorized into two parts, which are:
- Vegetative parthenocarpy – This generally takes place without pollination and due to the absence of pollination, no seeds are produced within the fruits.
- Stimulative parthenocarpy – This generally takes place without the process of fertilization. This condition occurs when the ovipositor of a wasp is inserted into the ovary of a flower.This can also be achieved by flowing air or growth regulators into the unisexual flowers that are present inside the syconium.
Benefits of Parthenocarpy
- This is more healthful and easier to achieve results.
- Provides seedless fruits and improves the quality.
- It reduces the complete cost of the cultivation.
- This improves crop yield even without using organic pesticides.
- Plant growth regulators are natural and the fruits produced are larger.
- Parthenocarpy helps the grower to keep the insects and pests away without even using chemicals. Because there is no requirement of pollinating insects for the formation of fruits. So the plants can be covered from getting attacked by the bad insects.
Examples: Pineapple, banana, cucumber, grape, watermelon, orange, grapefruit, pear, fig are some examples of Parthenocarpy.
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