Difference between F1 and F2 Generation

F1 and F2 generations are offspring obtained by a dihybrid cross. A dihybrid cross is a breeding experiment between two organisms which are identical hybrids for two traits. It is used to show Mendelian’s Law of Independent Assortment. Let us look at the differences between the two generations.

F1 Generation
F2 Generation
It is the first filial generation obtained by crossing two different parents. It is the second filial generation obtained by self crossing the F1 generation.
The parents are distinct: one is homozygous dominant for both the traits, and the other is homozygous recessive for both the traits. The parents are heterozygous for both traits.
All the offspring show dominant characteristics for both the traits. The generation shows a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1
It is important for hybridization as it yields the best characteristics from both the parents. It is important for maintaining a pure line or stabilizing the traits over generations.
Sometimes outbreeding depression is seen in the F1 generation, which is reduced fitness in the offspring due to cross between two distant parents. Continuous inbreeding of the F1 generation can lead to inbreeding depression in the F2 generation, where the offsprings have a reduced survival and fertility rate.

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What is the difference between the F1 generation and F2 generation?

F1 generation is the first filial generation, whereas F2 generation is the second filial generation obtained by crossing the F1 generation.


Give examples of the F1 and F2 generation.

In Mendel’s experiment, when he crossed a round, yellow seed (RRYY) pea plant to a wrinkled, green seed (rryy), he obtained RrYy (round and yellow), heterozygous offspring in the first generation, and on crossing the F1 he obtained a phenotype of 9:3:3:1.


Who is the Father of genetics?

Gregor Mendel is the Father of genetics.


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