Difference between F1 and F2 Generation

F1 and F2 generations are offspring obtained by a dihybrid cross. A dihybrid cross is a cross between two individuals, who differ in two different states controlled by two different genes. It is used to show Mendelian’s Law of Independent Assortment. Let us look at the differences between the two generations.

F1 Generation

F2 Generation

Definition

It is the first filial generation obtained by crossing two different parents.

It is the second filial generation obtained by self crossing the F1 generation.

Parents

The parents are distinct: one is homozygous dominant for both the traits, and the other is homozygous recessive for both the traits.

The parents are heterozygous for both traits.

Phenotype

All the offspring show dominant characteristics for both the traits.

The generation shows a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1

Importance

It is important for hybridization as it yields the best characteristics from both the parents.

It is important for maintaining a pure line or stabilizing the traits over generations.

Disadvantage

Sometimes outbreeding depression is seen in the F1 generation, which is reduced fitness in the offspring due to cross between two distant parents.

Continuous inbreeding of the F1 generation can lead to inbreeding depression in the F2 generation, where the offsprings have a reduced survival and fertility rate.

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FAQs

What is the difference between the F1 generation and F2 generation?

F1 generation is the first filial generation, whereas F2 generation is the second filial generation obtained by crossing the F1 generation.

Give examples of the F1 and F2 generation.

In Mendel’s experiment, when he crossed a round, yellow seed (RRYY) pea plant to a wrinkled, green seed (rryy), he obtained RrYy (round and yellow), heterozygous offspring in the first generation, and on crossing the F1 he obtained a phenotype of 9:3:3:1.

Who is the Father of genetics?

Gregor Mendel is the Father of genetics.

What is the phenotype and genotype of F1 generation?

The phenotype of the F1 generation is round and yellow seeds and the genotype is RrYy.

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