Pollination and Fertilization are the two main and natural process of producing offspring through the process of sexual reproduction in plants. Both the process occurs in all bisexual flowers, in which both the male and female reproductive structure (anther and stigma) are involved. Therefore flowers are considered as the reproductive organs of all flowering plants.
It is the biological process of transferring the pollen grains from the male reproductive organ to the female reproductive organ of a flower. In this process, pollen grains containing the male genetic material are collected from the anther and transferred to the stigma of a flower. In pollination, the pollen grains are transferred between anther and stigma by a number of different vectors including wind, birds, honeybees, moths, and butterflies.
There are 2 different types of pollination and are mainly based on the distribution of pollen grains. They are Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination. The process of pollination was discovered by the German naturalist, named Christian Sprengelduring the 18th century.
It is the physicochemical process during which the diploid zygote is developed by the fusion of both male and female gametes. This process occurs after the pollination of the carpel. The complete series of fertilization takes place within the zygote to develop into a seed and flowers play a major role as they are the reproductive structures of angiosperms.
In the complete course of fertilization, the male gametes are transferred to female reproductive organs through pollinators, including birds, honey bees, butterflies, flower beetles, etc. to produce a final product – an embryo in a seed. The process of fertilization in plants can be differentiated into three types and are mainly based on the entry of the pollen tube into the ovule. They are Porogamy, Chalazogamy, and Mesogamy.
There many differences between pollination and fertilization. Let us have a closer look at a few of them.
Difference between Pollination and Fertilization
|Pollination is an external process.||Fertilization is an internal process.|
|Pollination takes place before fertilization.||Fertilization takes place after pollination.|
|The transfer of pollen grains from the male to the female part of a flower.||The fusion of male and female gamete.|
|It is a physical process.||It is a genetic and biochemical process.|
|Are achieved by agents like wind, birds, insects, and animals.||Are achieved by the growth of pollen tube.|
|External factors are required.||External factors are not required.|
|This process leads to fertilization.||This process leads to the formation of seeds.|
|There is no formation of Pollen tube.||Pollen tubes are formed for transferring male gametes into an egg cell.|
|Occurs in the early stages of sexual reproduction in all flowering plants.||It is preceded by the pollination in all flowering plants.|
|Pollination occurs only in flowering plants.||Fertilization is followed by almost in every living being present on the planet earth, including plants, animals, birds, insects, humans, etc.|
Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the fertilization, pollination and different types of pollinations in the plant kingdom.