Pollination and Fertilization occur in plants during sexual reproduction. They are the two main and natural process of producing offspring. Both the process occurs in all bisexual flowers, in which both the male and female reproductive structure (anther and stigma) are involved. Therefore flowers are considered as the reproductive organs of all flowering plants.
It is the biological process of transferring the pollen grains from the male reproductive organ to the female reproductive organ of a flower. In this process, pollen grains containing the male genetic material are collected from the anther and transferred to the stigma of a flower. In pollination, the pollen grains are transferred between anther and stigma by a number of different vectors including wind, birds, honeybees, moths, and butterflies.
There are 2 different types of pollination and are mainly based on the distribution of pollen grains. They are Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination. It was discovered by the German naturalist, named Christian Sprengelduring the 18th century.
In the fertilization process, female and male gametes fuse together to form a diploid zygote. This process occurs after the pollination of the carpel. The complete series of fertilization takes place within the zygote to develop into a seed and flowers play a major role as they are the reproductive structures of angiosperms.
In the complete course of fertilization, the male gametes are transferred to female reproductive organs through pollinators, including birds, honey bees, butterflies, flower beetles, etc. to produce a final product – an embryo in a seed. The process of fertilization in plants is of three types. Pollen tube enters the ovule differently and this forms the basis of categorization. The three types of fertilization are Chalazogamy, Porogamy, and Mesogamy.
There many differences between pollination and fertilization. Let us have a closer look at a few of them.
Difference between Pollination and Fertilization
|Pollination is an external process.||Fertilization can either be internal or external|
|Pollination takes place before fertilization.||Fertilization occurs after pollination.|
|Pollination occurs from anthers of stamens to stigma of the ovary||It is the fusion of female and male gametes|
|It is a physical process.||It is a genetic and biochemical process.|
|Pollination agents are wind, water, birds, insects, and other animals.||Fertilization takes place by growing pollen tube which enters the ovule|
|External factors are required.||External factors are not required.|
|This process leads to fertilization.||This process leads to the formation of seeds.|
|The pollen tube is not required||Pollen tubes are formed for transferring male gametes into an egg cell.|
|Pollination occurs only in flowering plants.||Fertilization is followed by almost in every living being present on the planet earth, including plants, animals, birds, insects, humans, etc.|
Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the fertilization, pollination and different types of pollinations in the plant kingdom.