Difference between Regulatory and Repressor Protein

Regulatory Protein

Regulation of gene expression includes a variety of mechanisms by which the production of specific gene products (proteins) is either induced or inhibited. It can be regulated anywhere, right from the initiation of transcription to the post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications.

Regulatory proteins can either block or aid the RNA polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the transcription process. These regulatory proteins become inactive or active by binding with small molecules. This binding enables the regulatory protein to change its shape, and thereby aids in binding with DNA. Moreover, the action of regulatory proteins differs between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Repressor Protein

A repressor is an RNA or DNA binding protein that inhibits gene expression. It often binds to the associated promoter or silencer. This prevents the binding of DdRP (DNA dependent RNA polymerase) to the promoter. Thus, it inhibits the transcription of genes. It prevents the translation of mRNA into proteins. Repressor proteins can either reduce or completely block gene expression.

Also Read: Transcription of DNA and Central Dogma

Difference between Regulatory and Repressor Protein

Regulatory Protein

Repressor Protein

It is a protein molecule that binds with DNA, and aids in the regulation of gene expression by inhibiting or inducing it.

It is a protein molecule that binds with RNA or DNA, and blocks gene expression.

It inhibits or induces gene expression.

It reduces or inhibits gene expression.

Frequently Asked Questions on Difference between Regulatory and Repressor Protein

What is gene expression?

Gene expression is a process by which a gene is used to produce proteins or non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snRNA, etc. It includes the transcription of DNA to RNA, RNA splicing and translation of proteins.

What is a corepressor?

It is a small molecule or protein that aids in inhibiting gene expression. It is indirectly involved in gene regulation by binding to the repressor proteins. NCor and SMRT are well-known corepressors.

What does an inducer do?

The inducer is a molecule that helps in the regulation of gene expression. It increases gene expression by disabling the repressors or by binding with the activators. Thus, they allow transcription to take place.

Extended Reading: Gene Regulation

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