What is parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the four parathyroid glands. They are the tiny glands, about the size of a rice granules which are located in the neck of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone controls and regulates the calcium levels in the blood and raise their levels when they are too low. This gland performs its function through its actions on the bones, intestine, and the kidneys.
The primary purpose of parathyroid glands is to regulate calcium in the blood in a very strict range between 9.0 and 10.1. Parathyroids also manage the amount of calcium in the bones and determine their strongness. However, these glands are present next to the thyroid gland and have no concerned function.
Bones – The release of calcium is stimulated by the parathyroid hormone from stores of calcium present in the bones into the bloodstreams. This destroys bones and minimizes developing of new bone.
Intestine – Parathyroid hormone increases the calcium absorption in the intestine by food through its impacts and effects on the metabolism of vitamin D.
Kidneys – Parathyroid hormone minimizes the calcium loss in the urine. The hormone stimulates the formation of active vitamin D in the kidneys.
Parathyroid hormone Levels
What if the parathyroid hormone is too high?
Too much Parathyroid hormone causes higher calcium levels in the blood which leads to a disease known as hyperthyroidism.
Oversecretion of parathyroid hormone can make a person depressed, irritable, insomnia, memory loss, lack of energy and worried are the most common symptoms in patients with parathyroid disease.
It is of three types.
There are three types of Parathyroid hormone.
- Primary hyperparathyroidism
- Secondary hyperparathyroidism
- Tertiary hyperparathyroidism
In primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, the level of calcium is high due to unregulated secretion of parathyroid hormone.
In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the level of calcium is low due to other factors like kidney disease.
What if the parathyroid hormone is too little?
A too low parathyroid hormone is a rare condition which results in low levels of calcium in the blood. It is treated medically with vitamin D analogs and oral calcium supplements.
When the calcium level falls down people get tingling sensation or cramps in the hand muscles. A sudden drop can cause an individual to feel weird, foggy like and the brain not functioning accurately.
To learn more about Parathyroid hormone, visit Byju’s.
Practise This Question