Dialysis is a process of cleaning the blood when kidneys could no longer perform their job of doing the same. It helps to get rid of extra body’s wastes and controls the blood pressure.
Peritoneal dialysis is a process that is done for patients suffering from kidney disease. There are two types of Peritoneal Dialysis-
- Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
- Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD)
This process uses the peritoneum of the patient in the abdomen acting as a membrane where fluids and other dissolved substances like urea, glucose, electrolytes, and albumin are evacuated from the blood. The fluid is later transported through a tube in the abdomen and is flushed out when the patient is sleeping in the night time. This method is used as an alternative to hemodialysis.
The main complication of this process comes from infection because of the presence of a permanent tube. Before surgery, the abdomen is cleaned properly and a catheter is inserted surgically by keeping its one end in the abdomen and other being sticking out from the skin.
The catheter must be cleaned properly before each infusion and flow in and out of the abdomen. Approximately two to three liters of dialysis fluid is supplied to the abdomen for around ten to fifteen minutes. The whole fluid volume is known as dwell whereas the fluid itself is referred as dialysate.
The total fluid volume would be around three liters and some medication might be added to the fluid right before the infusion. The dwell then would lie in the abdomen where waste products diffuse with the peritoneum through the blood vessels. After around four to six hours depending upon the degree of treatment, the fluid is replaced with a fresh one. This event happens while the patient is sleeping. The exchange of fluid happens at least four to five times a day in the abdomen. The fluid contains lactate, sodium chloride along with a certain percentage of glucose to ensure hyperosmolarity.
The exchange of fluid happens at least four to five times a day in the abdomen. The fluid contains lactate, sodium chloride along with a certain percentage of glucose to ensure hyperosmolarity.
The intensity of dialysis would purely depend upon the volume of dwell along with regular exchange and fluid concentration. The APD follows the cycles between 3 and 10 dwells every night while CADP includes four dwells each day for two to three liters per dwell, both staying in the abdomen for some four to eight hours.
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