Peritoneal Dialysis

What is Dialysis?

The kidney performs its functions by removing wastes, excess fluid from our body and also controls the blood pressure.

Dialysis is an artificial process of cleaning the blood by removing toxins, excess amount of water, and other solutes when the person’s kidneys could no longer performs the excretion process.

Types of Dialysis.

There are two different types of dialysis– Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis.

What is Peritoneal dialysis?

Peritoneal dialysis is a process that is done for patients suffering from kidney disease. There are two types of Peritoneal Dialysis-

  • Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
  • Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD)

This process involves the minor surgery to implant a peritoneal dialysis – a catheter into your abdomen. This process takes a few hours and is repeated for three to five times per day.

In this process of dialysis, the implanted catheter helps in filtering the blood through the peritoneum, a membrane in your abdomen. During treatment, a special fluid called dialysate flows into the peritoneum by absorbing all the wastes. Once the dialysate draws waste out of the bloodstream, it is transported through a tube in the abdomen and is flushed out when the patient is sleeping in the night time. This method is used as an alternative to hemodialysis.

Peritoneal Dialysis

The main complication of this process comes from infection because of the presence of a permanent tube. Before surgery, the abdomen is cleaned properly and a catheter is inserted surgically by keeping its one end in the abdomen and other being sticking out from the skin.

The catheter must be cleaned properly before each infusion and flow in and out of the abdomen. Approximately two to three liters of dialysis fluid is supplied to the abdomen for around ten to fifteen minutes. The whole fluid volume is known as dwell whereas the fluid itself is referred as dialysate. The total fluid volume would be around three liters and some medication might be added to the fluid right before the infusion. The dwell then would lie in the abdomen where waste products diffuse with the peritoneum through the blood vessels. After around four to six hours depending upon the degree of treatment, the fluid is replaced with a fresh one. This event happens while the patient is sleeping. The exchange of fluid happens at least four to five times a day in the abdomen. The fluid contains lactate, sodium chloride along with a certain percentage of glucose to ensure hyperosmolarity.

The exchange of fluid happens at least four to five times a day in the abdomen. The fluid contains lactate, sodium chloride along with a certain percentage of glucose to ensure hyperosmolarity.

The intensity of dialysis would purely depend upon the volume of dwell along with regular exchange and fluid concentration. The APD follows the cycles between 3 and 10 dwells every night while CADP includes four dwells each day for two to three liters per dwell, both staying in the abdomen for some four to eight hours.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more in detail about the Dialysis, types of Dialysis and risk associated with Dialysis.


Practise This Question

Animal based farming includes management of: