The excretory system is responsible for the elimination of wastes from the body of an organism. Organs such as liver, kidney, skin and sweat glands eliminate the nitrogenous waste from the body. Any disorder in the excretory system leads to the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the body that leads to certain diseases.
Let us have a detailed look at the different types of disorders of the excretory system.
Also Read: Excretory Products and their Elimination
Major Disorders of Excretory System
A list of the disorders of the excretory system are mentioned below:
Under this condition, the urea accumulation is comparatively high. In such patients, excess urea is removed by hemodialysis.
In hemodialysis, the blood is drained carefully from whichever artery is convenient and is sent to the dialyzing unit. The unit contains a porous membrane which allows passage of molecules on the basis of the concentration gradient.
Also read: Uremia
Renal failure is the decrease in the glomerular filtration in humans. Both the kidneys are damaged and stop working in case of acute renal failure. The main feature of acute renal failure is scanty urine production.
The kidney transplant is the ultimate treatment for the correction of acute renal or kidney failure. The process is elaborate and relies heavily on the availability of a functioning kidney from donors. There are numerous complications that could occur. To avoid these, the kidney from a close or distant relative is preferred. But due to modern technology, the complications related to kidney transplant have been reduced to a greater deal.
Renal Calculi or Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are the result of the deposition of dissolved minerals or insoluble salts on the inner lining of the kidney. These increase in size and cause immense pain in the patients when passed.
Nephritis or Bright’s Disease
Nephritis is generally the inflammation of the kidney. Glomerulonephritis is characterised by inflammation in the glomeruli of the kidney. In this case, the glomeruli are completely filled in blood. If many glomeruli become non-functional, the patient needs an artificial kidney.
Hypertension due to Renin Secretion
Hypersecretion of renin results in the formation of angiotensin which leads to hypertension.
Renal Tabular Acidosis
In this condition, the person is unable to secrete optimum quantities of hydrogen ions due to which a large amount of sodium bicarbonate ions are lost during urination.
Diabetes Insipidus results due to the deficiency of Antidiuretic hormone. The hormone leads to the reabsorption of water by distal parts of the nephron and thus prevents diuresis (urine production). Deficiency in ADH secretion results in excessive production of dilute urine and intense thirst.
Oedema is the accumulation of excess fluid in the tissues. Excess sodium ions result in an increase in the volume of the interstitial fluid without a change in their osmolality.
These were some of the common disorders of the excretory system.
Also Read: Human Excretory System
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