What is Diabetes insipidus?
It is one of the rare disorders that occur when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally more amount of urine which is insipid i.e, odorless and dilute. In other words, it is an abnormal situation wherein kidneys are no longer able to control the excretion of water.
Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus that include both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are not related but both conditions create a constant thirst and frequent urination. Persons with diabetes insipidus have normal blood sugar levels, however, their kidneys could not control fluid in the body. That is the only difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
Types of Diabetes Insipidus
There are four different types of diabetes insipidus:
- Central diabetes insipidus : This condition is caused by the damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: This condition is caused by different factors, including the damage the kidneys, presence of high levels of calcium, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract blockage or low potassium levels in the body.
- Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus: This condition is caused by the dysfunction of the thirst mechanism in the hypothalamus.
- Gestational diabetes insipidus: This condition is caused during pregnancy especially when the mother’s ADH are destroyed by the enzymes of the placenta
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
Our kidney functions by filtering the blood multiple times. Only a little amount of concentrated urine is released and most of the water is reabsorbed. Diabetes insipidus happens when the kidneys are not able to concentrate the urine appropriately due to which a lot of dilute urine is excreted.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water that is excreted in urine. ADH is also known as vasopressin. It is made in the part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. Then it is stored and secreted by the pituitary gland which lies just beneath the base of the brain.
DI that is occurred by the lack of ADH is known as central diabetes insipidus. When DI occurred due to the failure of kidneys to respond towards ADH, this particular condition is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus
- The Central DI could be controlled by vasopressin through injection, tablets or nasal spray.
- If nephrogenic DI is occurred by medicine, restoring normal function of kidneys could be helped by stopping the medicines.
- Hereditary nephrogenic DI could be treated by drinking sufficient fluids to match urine that is released.
- Nephrogenic DI is treated with diuretics (water pills) and anti-inflammatory medicines.
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