Diabetes insipidus is one of the rare disorders that occur when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally more amount of urine which is insipid i.e, odorless and dilute. In other words, it is an abnormal situation wherein kidneys are no longer able to control the excretion of water.
Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus that include both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are not related but both conditions create a constant thirst and frequent urination. Persons with diabetes insipidus have normal blood sugar levels, however, their kidneys could not control fluid in the body. That is the only difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
Diabetes Insipidus Causes
Your kidney filters all the blood multiple times. Only a little amount of concentrated urine is released and mostly the water is reabsorbed. Diabetes insipidus or DI happens when the kidneys are not able to concentrate the urine appropriately due to which a lot of dilute urine is excreted.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water that is excreted in urine. ADH is also known as vasopressin. It is made in the part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. Then it is stored and secreted by the pituitary gland which lies just beneath the base of the brain.
DI that is occurred by the lack of ADH is known as central diabetes insipidus. When DI occurred by the failure of kidneys to respond towards ADH, this particular condition is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Diabetes Insipidus Treatment
The Central DI could be controlled by vasopressin. A vasopressin injection, tablets or nasal spray.
If nephrogenic DI is occurred by medicine, restoring normal function of kidneys could be helped by stopping the medicines.
Hereditary nephrogenic DI could be treated by drinking sufficient fluids to match urine that is released.
Nephrogenic DI is treated with diuretics (water pills) and anti-inflammatory medicines.
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