What is Translation in Biology?

What is Translation?

In Molecular Biology, the term translation can be defined as the process of converting nucleic acid information into amino acids. It also relates to the process of producing proteins from mRNA templates.

During the process of translation, sequence of nucleotides present on the RNA is translated into amino acid sequence of proteins. The complete reaction of translation is carried out by ribosomes, where both ribosomes and tRNA dock on a matured mRNA transcript and select multiple enzymes in an energy-intensive process that uses ATP as well as GTP.

Components of Translation

The main components of translation include :

  1. mRNA of both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
  2. tRNA – It helps in sending commands or transferring the information between protein and nucleic acids.
  3. Ribosomes – It contains ribosomal RNA and proteins, therefore, it is called the manufacturing unit of a cell.
  4. Enzymes: It is required for the formation of a peptide bond between the amino acids and also to attach amino acids to the accurate tRNA molecules.
  5. Proteins- They are the soluble factors, which are required for proper initiation, elongation and termination of translation.

Process Translation

Translation proceeds in three different stages or phases and every stage is associated with different proteins. Both GTP and ATP are the main source of energy used in this process. The three different stages of translation mechanism are:

  1. Initiation
  2. Elongation
  3. Termination

This article concludes with an introduction to translation. Stay tuned with BYJU’S Biology to learn more in detail about translation and any other related topics.

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