The environment is defined as the surroundings of a physical system that may interact with other systems by exchanging mass and energy. All the living beings and the non-living things fall under natural environment. The environment is the surrounding that we live in, and so it is our responsibility to protect it from any destruction. Environmental pollution is one of the greatest problems that human society is facing today. Air, water, and soil form the three basic areas of environmental pollution.
What is Environmental Pollution?
When there is an undesirable change in the surrounding that has harmful effects on plants and animals, it leads to environmental pollution. A pollutant is a substance that causes pollution. We can have pollutants in liquid, solid or gaseous form. A substance becomes a pollutant when its concentration is greater than the natural abundance and this increase in concentration is either due to human activities or natural phenomenon. There are pollutants which can be degraded and rapidly broken down by natural processes similar to the degradation of vegetables. We also have pollutants which take decades to degrade, once released cannot be easily removed. For example, DDT, plastic materials, heavy metals and nuclear waste.
Effects of Environmental Pollution:
It has been seen that pollutants originate at a point and are then transported to other places by the action of wind or water. Some pollutants are dumped into the soil by human beings. This leads to air, water and soil pollution respectively. If the soil is polluted, the useful microorganisms in it will die and the fertility of soil will be lost. The production of crops will decrease. If the soil is not fertile; it will have a harmful impact on the human society. Similarly, if water is polluted then we have to purify it before drinking. Purification needs resources. Lastly, if air is polluted, respiration will become an issue and survival of life will be under threat. Air pollution leads to many respiratory diseases and harms the human body.
We can conclude by saying that environmental pollution will affect the life on earth and should be reduced as far as possible. We harm the nature and in turn, nature will harm us more. This should be stopped, our survival depends on this environment so care should be taken and its balance should be maintained.
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