Methods of Preparation of Aldehydes
The organic compounds that contain carbon-oxygen double bonds are referred to as carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl group is one of the most significant functional group in organic chemistry. Some of these compounds are widely used in the industry for manufacturing various chemicals and reagents.
Carbonyl compounds are of two types, aldehydes and ketones. The compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon and hydrogen are called aldehydes while the compounds in which the carbon group is attached to two carbon atoms are called ketones. This article is concerned about the methods of preparation of aldehydes.
Preparation of Aldehydes
There are various methods that can be used to prepare aldehydes depending upon the type and requirement of the compounds. Following are some important methods of preparation of aldehydes.
1. By Oxidation of Alcohol
After the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols we can get both aldehydes and ketones. Oxidation of primary alcohols results in aldehydes while oxidation of secondary alcohols produces ketones
2. Dehydrogenation of Alcohols
This is widely used in industries. In this method primary alcohol is passed over metal catalysts such that the product obtained is an aldehyde. This method is preferred for the conversion of volatile alcohols into aldehydes.
3. From Hydrocarbons
Aldehydes are obtained by the ozonolysis of alkenes followed by reacting the ozonolysis products with zinc dust and water. A mixture of aldehydes and ketones is obtained depending upon the structure of the hydrocarbon.
There are other methods used for the preparation of aldehydes, let’s have a look on those methods:
- From acyl chloride: The hydrogenation of acid chlorides by passing over a catalyst such as palladium aldehydes are obtained. This reaction is called Rosenmund reduction.
- From nitriles and esters: We get aldehydes when nitriles are reduced to corresponding imine in the presence of stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid and the resulting mixture is hydrolysed. This reaction is called Stephen reaction.
Click here to know about the Nomenclature of Aldehydes.
We can get aromatic aldehydes with the help of aromatic hydrocarbons by using the methods given below:
4. By Oxidation of Methylbenzene
Toluene can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents to benzoic acid. The oxidation can be stopped at the aldehyde stage by using those reagents which are suitable to convert the methyl group to an intermediate that cannot be oxidized further.
- By using chromyl chloride(CrO2Cl2): We get a chromium complex when chromyl chloride oxidizes the methyl group, after further hydrolysis benzaldehyde is obtained. This reaction is called Etard reaction
- By using chromic oxide(CrO3): When we treat chromic acid in acetic anhydride then toluene or substituted toluene is converted to benzylidene diacetate. Benzylidene diacetate on hydrolysis gives the corresponding benzaldehyde.
- By Gatterman –Koch reaction: The treatment of carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride with benzene or its derivative in the presence of aluminium chloride gives benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde. This is called Gatterman –Koch reaction.
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What is meant by aldehyde?
Aldehyde, part of a family of organic compounds in which a carbon atom forms a double bond with an oxygen atom, part single bond with a hydrogen atom, and one single bond with another atom or group of atoms known as R in general chemical formulas and structural diagrams.
Is aldehyde acidic or basic?
Aldehydes have a sp2-hybridised, planar carbon core that is bound to oxygen by a double bond and hydrogen by a single bond. Typically, the C – H bond is not acidic.
What is the use of aldehydes?
Formaldehyde is used as plant germicides, insecticides, and fungicides in the embalming, tanning, processing of glues and polymeric items. It is also used for the modelling and drug checking. Formaldehyde forms Bakelite when combined with phenol and is used in paints, coatings, and adhesives.
What are natural aldehydes?
Aldehydes are a class of reactive, organic compounds that can be formed in natural products such as cinnamon bark (cinnamaldehyde) and vanilla bean (vanillin) as well as in laboratories.
What are aldehydes in perfume?
An aromatic aldehyde is classified as an amalgam which contains the radical CHO, such as benzaldehyde, which has an almond-like odour profile. Generally speaking these chemical compounds have a scent base with a soapy-waxy-lemony-floral brush.
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