Analgesics and tranquillizers are drugs that act on the nervous system. They affect the message transmission that happens from nerves to receptors.
What are Tranquilizers?
The term ‘tranquillizer’ can also refer to anti-anxiety medication. The term was introduced in the year 1953 to describe drugs that have a calming effect. They are the chemical compounds which are very useful in the treatment of stress and mild or severe mental diseases.
- They induce a sense of well-being in a person thereby releasing him from stress, tension, anxiety or irritability. They are one of the essential components of sleeping pills.
- There are many types of tranquillizers and each has different modes of functioning.
- For example- a tranquillizer which helps in uplifting mood is called noradrenaline. If the level of noradrenaline is low then the signal sending activity also becomes low which in return makes a person feel depressed. In these situations antidepressant drugs or a tranquilizer can be used.
- These drugs inhibit the action of those enzymes that catalyse the degradation of noradrenaline. When the enzymes are inhibited, noradrenaline is slowly metabolized, and therefore it activates its receptors for a longer duration of time, and so the effect of depression is counteracted.
Classification of Tranquillizers
Tranquillizers come in two varieties.
- Minor Tranquillizers
- Major Tranquillizers
Minor Tranquillizers also called anxiolytics are used for sedation and to treat anxiety. Today these drugs are called antianxiety medications.
Major Tranquillizers also called neuroleptics were developed to treat psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. These drugs combat hallucinations and other delusions. Usually prescribed for long terms, major Tranquillizers include phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, clozapine and rauwolfia alkaloids.
Like all drugs tranquillizers have the potential for producing side effects sometimes one’s even when taken in recommended dosages. Low dosages of mild tranquillizers may cause drowsiness and a loss of coordination that resembles drunkenness. These reactions tend to occur when the patient first begins taking the medication but can develop later when ah accumulation of the medication occurs. A significant depression of mood can be a side effect of prolonged use of Tranquilizers
Examples of Tranquilizers
Some examples of tranquilizers are iproniazid and phenelzine.
Some tranquillizers are relatively mild in nature and are suitable for relieving tension. Equanil is used in controlling depression and hypertension. We have barbiturates which are hypnotic that is sleep producing agents. Some substances which are used as tranquilizers are valium and serotonin.
Moving on to antiseptics, these are those substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms.
- They are applied to the living tissues such as wounds to prevent the growth of microbes and free the skin from any disease.
- The examples of antiseptics are furacine, soframicine etc. We also have antiseptic soaps that are commonly used; these soaps have bithionol added to it.
- Boric acid is also an antiseptic which is used for eyes.
- Dettol is the most popular disinfectant used these days; it is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol.
- Both tranquillizers and antiseptics are vital for the healthy survival of human beings.
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