Comprehension Solutions 06

 

1.The best answer is B. The passage states each of the five well-know plant hormones ‘has more than one effect on the growth and development of plants” and that, for this reason, “they are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops” .Choice A is not correct because the passage describes some of the functions performed by the hormone auxin. Choice E is consistent with information presented in the passage, but by emphasizing the specific effect hormone have at the cellular level rather than the multiplicity of effects they have on the entire plant, E fails to prove the reason stated in the passage that the five hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops. Neither C nor D is suggested by anything in the passage.

 

2.The best answer is D. According to the passage, “The pleiotropy of the five well-studies plant hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animals” .The example given involves certain hypothalamic hormones that “stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many different hormones, one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex”. These hormones in turn “have specific effects on target organs all over the body”. This “hierarchy of hormones,” as the author calls it, “may also exist in plants” (line 35), where the five pleiotropic hormones may “function by activating the enzymes that release … more specific chemical messengers”. Thus, hypothalamic hormones in animals and the five major hormones in plants occupy a similar place in the respective organisms” hormonal hierarchy.

 

3. The best answer is A. The last paragraph characterizes oligosaccharins as “specific chemical messengers”. The passage indicates that these chemical messengers are “specific” in that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, they are likely to have particular effects on particular plant cells. Choice A is correct because it is the only answer choice that describes an effect on a specific aspect of plant growth and development: stimulating a particular plant cell to become part of a plant’s root system. Choice B and C are incorrect because the last paragraph indicates that enzymes activate the release of oligosaccharins. Choice D is incorrect because, although oligosaccharins do affect the activity of the gene complement of a particular cell, they do not duplicate that complement. Choice E is incorrect because the second paragraph indicates that an oligosaccharin has a specific effect rather than multiple effects on plant cells.

 

4. The best answer is E. The second paragraph states that the five major plant hormones, including auxin, are pleiotropic and indicates that each pleiotropic hormone has “more than one effect on the growth and development of plants”. The effects of auxin are then listed in detail to provide an example of the different effects a pleiotropic hormone can have on a plant. Thus, the specific effects of auxin are mentioned to illustrate the concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones. Choice C can be eliminated because the specific effects that auxin has on plant development are not discussed in the context of the hierarchy of hormones. Choice A, B, and D are incorrect because they cite topics that are not discussed in the passage.

 

5.The best answer is E. The first paragraph states that plant cells “differentiate and form structures” when a “complex system of chemical messengers” activates a “small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell” .In the passage, the author elaborates on the hormonal system in plants by indicating that the pleiotropic plant hormones activate enzymes, which in turn release oligosaccharins-the “more specific chemical messengers”. The second paragraph indicated these specific chemical messengers have specific effects on plant development. Thus, the passage indicates that it is the oligosaccharins that directly influence the development of a plant cell by controlling the expression of a plant cell’s genes. Choices C and D are incorrect because the oligosaccharins are themselves specific chemical messengers and are not said to produce any hormones. The passage provides no information to support A or B.

 

6.The best answer is C. The passage states that because each pleiotropic hormone has so many different effects on a plant, pleiotropic hormones “are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops”. In contrast, the passage indicates that oligosaccharins have specific effects on the growth and development of plants. Thus, in comparison to the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could potentially be effective in artificially controlling specific aspects of crop development. Choices A, B, D, and E can be eliminated because they describe functions that are not attributed in the passage either to the pleiotropic hormones or to oligosaccharins.

 

7. This question asks you to identify the primary concern of the passage. The best answer is C. According to the first paragraph, the passage is about two different assessments of Florence Nightingale’s career. The first paragraph summarizes one of these assessments; the second paragraph presents a contrasting account of Nightingale’s career that contradicts the central point of the first account. Choice A is incorrect. Although the passage discusses various aspects of Florence Nightingale’s involvement in the field of nursing, it does not mention any innovations that she introduced to that field. Choice B is not correct because the passage does not discuss approaches to the writing of historical biography. Choice D is also incorrect. Although the passage refers to the specific problems of military medicine during the Crimean War and to the poor living conditions of British soldiers after the war, the passage does not discuss the broader, more general issue of the quality of health care in nineteenth-century England. And choice E is not the answer because the passage does not mention the effects of the Crimean War on developments in health care.

 

8. This question asks you to identify a contribution that the editors of Nightingale’s letters attribute to her. The best answer is E. In the second paragraph, several of Nightingale’s post-war accomplishments that are highlighted by the editors of her letters are mentioned. In the passage, her contribution to the creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers is mentioned as one of these. Choice A is not correct. The editors of Nightingale’s letters cite the relatively high death rate of British soldiers after the Crimean War, but they do not mention their survival rate during the war. Choice B is incorrect, because the passage does not provide any information about the curriculum of the nurses’ training hospital that Nightingale founded. Choice C is also not the correct answer. The passage does not mention women doctors, only women nurses. And choice D is incorrect because there is no indication in the passage that the nurse’s training hospital that Nightingale founded was at a university or that it was the first of its kind.

 

9. To answer this question, you must use information contained in the passage to infer something about Nightingale’s relationship with the British public of her day. The best answer is A. Lines refer to Nightingale’s “heroic reputation”; & to “nightingale’s place in the national pantheon”; and the para discusses her persuasiveness with the British government and her fund-raising successes. From this information it can be inferred that Nightingale was highly respected, as evidenced by both popular and governmental support for her projects. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect for the same reason: each one refers to an element of social or governmental opposition or resistance to Nightingale’s ideas, none of which is mentioned or suggested by the passage. Choice E is also incorrect. The information in the passage contradicts the notion that Nightingale was “quickly forgotten.” To the contrary, the passage discusses the “famous British nurse Florence Nightingale”, her “heroic reputation”, and her “place in the national pantheon” , as well as her “eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.”

 

10. The question asks you to draw a conclusion about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War that is suggested, rather than stated expressly, in the passage. The best answer is D. In the second paragraph Nightingale’s efforts to reform sanitary conditions in Britain are illustrated by her response to the death rate among enlisted men in British barracks, which is described as unusually high relative to that of neighboring civilian populations. From this it can be inferred that sanitary conditions in the barracks were worse than in these civilian populations. Choices A, B and C are incorrect: in each, a comparison is made between sanitary conditions in post-war Britain and sanitary conditions elsewhere or at other times. However, because the passage provides no basis on which to make any of these comparisons, all three of these choices are incorrect. The passage does not mention sanitary conditions “in other parts of the world,” as in Choice A; “before the war,” as in choice B; or in “rural areas” as compared with “urban centers”, as in choice C. Choice E is also incorrect, because the passage provides no information about the general state of sanitary conditions “throughout England”.

 

11. This question asks you to select a statement about the two contrasting accounts of Nightingale’s importance with which the author of the passage would be most likely to agree. The best answer is C. In the last paragraph, the author concedes that “Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War.” This is consistent with Summers’ view that Nightingale’s importance during the war has been exaggerated ,but the author of the passage nonetheless describes Nightingale as a great social pioneer because of her vision and achievements. These achievements, which the second paragraph states occurred primarily after the Crimean War, apparently did not influence Summers’ interpretation of Nightingale’s importance. Given the author’s favorable assessment of Nightingale’s reputation, it is likely that the author would agree that Summers’ interpretation ignores this important evidence. Choice A is not the correct answer. Although, in the passage, the author concedes that Summers may be correct in her assessment of Nightingale’s wartime achievements, nothing is said in the passage about Summers’ discussion, if any, of Nightingale’s postwar influence or activities. Choice B is also incorrect. The passage cites the editors’ collection of Nightingale’s letters as evidence of Nightingale’s “brilliance and creativity.” In addition, in light of the author’s statement that Nightingale has earned “an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers”,there is no reason to think the author would agree that the editors exaggerated Nightingale’s influence on later generations. Choice D is not the correct answer. In the last paragraph of the passage, the author refers to Nightingale’s letters as evidence of her “brilliance and creativity” ,and as the basis for a conclusion that Nightingale has earned “an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers” .It is therefore highly unlikely that the author believes that the editors of these letters have “mistakenly propagated” outdated notions or impeded a balanced assessment of Nightingale’s role. Choice E is also incorrect. In the last paragraph of the passage, the author states that “the evidence of Nightingale’s letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’ brilliance and creativity.” Summers, on the other hand, seeks in her book to “debunk” Nightingale’s “heroic reputation”. Rather than supporting Summers’ conclusions about Nightingale, the evidence of Nightingale’s letters contradicts them.

 

12. The best answer is A. In the last paragraph of the passage, the author presents two examples of Nightingale’s “brilliance and creativity.” In the first of these, the author compares Nightingale to “a modern educator” for counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children’s powers of observation. The fact that the author believes that this is evidence of Nightingale’s creativity suggests that it was unusual at that time to emphasize developing children’s ability to observe. Choice B is not the correct answer. Nightingale’s efforts to improve conditions in British military barracks are not cited as evidence of her creativity, nor is it suggested that Nightingale’s counseling a village schoolmaster, not enlisting schoolmasters’ help ;moreover, nothing in the passage suggests that educators had failed to enlist such help prior to the incident the author describes. Choice D is incorrect: although the author cites Nightingale’s contributions to the care of the needy , the passage does not suggest that no organized help for the needy existed before Nightingale began her work. And choice E is incorrect, because although Nightingale’s cost-accounting system is presented in the passage as having made a lasting contribution to the British Army’s medical services, the passage never suggests that before Nightingale the Army lacked a cost-accounting system.

 

13. This question asks you to identify the author’s primary concern in the last paragraph of the passage. The best answer is D. In the last paragraph, the author cites examples of Nightingale’s achievements to support the author’s conclusion that Nightingale’s achievements to support the Author’s conclusion that Nightingale is worthy of respect and has earned “an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers” Choice A is incorrect. The third paragraph does not summarize the arguments presented in the first two paragraphs. Choice B is also not the correct answer: in the third paragraph, the author expresses essential agreement with the positive view of Nightingale’s career described in the second paragraph. Choice C is incorrect because in the last paragraph the author does not analyze the weakness of any evidence cited elsewhere in the passage. And choice E is not the correct answer because the author does not correct any factual errors in the two works under review.