1. Option (d)
The key to this question lies in the last 3 lines of the first paragraph “These are the questions that I hope a brief consideration of Romanticism and philosophy in an historical age might open on to. The essays and counter-responses in this volume represent works in progress by Kelly and Pfau, and we invite our readers’ input into their respective polemics.”
2. Option (d)
The question asks about the opinions of Kelly and Pfau. In the first paragraph look at the line “Both Pfau and Kelley are concerned to define the place ofthe aesthetic within a judgment ” .Also the last line of last paragraph states that “In some respects, what they articulate about Romanticism is nothing less than the uses (variously
conceived) of its pleasures” These statements are brought in A) and C). Both B) and C)
are the views of the author.
3. Option (b)
Please look at these lines in the first paragraph “we end in
circular claims about the meaning of meaning. We are not
quite circus animals chasing our respective tails” .This
clearly gives the answer to the question. All the other 3
options are junk answers.
4. Option (c)
Option (a) is wrong because of this line in the passage “Kelly finds reassurance in Hilary Putnam’s recent re-thinking of philosophical realism” Option (b) is wrong because of this line in the passage “This is partly the issue that Thomas Pfau takes up polemically.” This indicates that some people/ authors were against Pfau’s thoughts. Option (c) does not find support in the passage. Look at the line “But still more questions arise. Does the potential
solipsism necessarily inherent in any aesthetic pleasure find a rapport, or a reciprocal production of meaning, with the empirical world? If Romanticism has a grasp upon the actual that is not merely weak, how do the actual and the pleasure of that aesthetic “grasp” signify to each other? ” It looks as if the author doesn’t fully agree with Kelly’s thoughts.
5. Option (c)
The first reason is that poetic cadence treaded on structuralist ground which made many academicians to believe that it was structural. Look at these lines “it is true, treading on structuralist ground:” and ” is the assumption that poetic resonance must be interpreted as either ideological or, alternatively, structural in an essentialist, naively psychologised manner”. All the other answers are not complete.
6. Option (b)
Direct question from the first para.
Look at these lines from the last paragraph “civil disobedience is a promising variation on theme that includes the perpetual revolutions ” and “Consciously and unconsciously, intentionally and unintentionally, it imagines and cultivates another political context” The question is what is the final outcome of a perpetual revolution.It finally creates a new political context.
So, the option (b) is correct. All the other answer options are the intermediate
conclusions and not the final outcome.
8. Option (c)
This question is with reference with the line “When Paine says that the long habit of not thinking a thing wrong creates the superficial impression of its being right, he brings to our attention the fact that the long habit of not thinking a thing wrong makes it unlikely that we will think to change it.”
So there are 2 consequences of not thinking a thing wrong
1) You think you are right
2) You are unlikely to change
Murali thinks his action is legal and he doesn’t want to change .Only option c) illustrates both the consequences.
9. Option (d)
Look at this line in the passage “Drawing the whole world into every act of violence may partly explain why “local” wars and revolutions have escalated into global conflicts.
But my point here is to focus on rhetorical strategy in the context of an argument.”
The author himself doesn’t want to comment on option (D). Every other option is discussed in the passage by the author with examples.
10. Option (a)
The author doesn’t state anywhere that David walker is a revolutionary. The only thing the author states is “David Walker, writing with Jefferson in mind and partly in response to his Notes on the State of Virginia, followed the same pattern”.
11. Option (c)
The last paragraph that talks about Vawdrey emphasizes the fact that the writer’s work is steeped in greatness and people get to know of only the outer layer, the real personality of the writers comes through only in their work.
This is represented only in option (c). Option (a) talks only about one side of the writer’s character and hence cannot be the answer. Option (b) also talks about only one side of the character. Option (d) does not make any sense. Option (c) is the correct answer.
12. Option (b)
The passage mentions that Nabokov escaped the 20th century’s greatest tyrannies which were the Bolshevik upheavals and the Nazi persecution.
13. Option (e)
Refer to para 3 where the author feels that the invisibility stems from varied prejudices.
14. Option (c)
Option (c) can be easily inferred from para 1.