What is the full form of RNA?
The full form of RNA is Ribonucleic Acid. RNA is one of the essential nucleic acids in an organism, while DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid) is the other. According to the theory of RNA, it is the first genetic material from which all genetic code was extracted and from which early life originated. RNA is a molecule which replicates itself. RNA is, in simple terms, the precursor to any mode of life that exists in this world today.
Structure of RNA
The structure of RNA is briefly explained below.
- The RNA molecule comprises phosphoric acid, pentose sugar and some nitrogen-containing cyclic bases.
- RNA has β-D-ribose in it as the moiety for sugar. Guanine (G), Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), and Uracil (U) are the heterocyclic bases existing in RNA. The fourth base of RNA is distinct from that in DNA.
- Adenine and uracil are the main RNA basic building block; both form base pairs with the aid of 2 hydrogen bonds.
- The RNA mainly consists of a single strand which sometimes folds back.
- RNA exhibits a hairpin structure, and like the nucleotides in DNA, nucleotides are generated in this ribonucleic material(RNA). Nucleosides are like groups of phosphates, which also often aid in synthesising nucleotides in DNA.
Various types of RNA
There are different types of RNA, out of which in the human body most well-known and most widely studied are:
- tRNA (Transfer RNA)
The transfer RNA is responsible for identifying the appropriate protein or the amino acids the body requires to help the ribosomes. It is at the endpoints of every amino acid. It is also called soluble RNA and constitutes a link between amino acid and messenger RNA.
- mRNA (Messenger RNA)
As the title implies, mRNA is responsible for getting the genetic material to the ribosomes and determining what kind of protein the body needs. That is also known as messenger RNA. Such m-RNA is usually used in the transcription and protein production process.
- rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
The rRNA is the ribosome component found inside the cytoplasm of a cell, where ribosomes are found. The Ribosomal RNA is mainly required to synthesise and translate mRNA into proteins for all living creatures. The rRNA consists primarily of cellular RNA and is the most prevalent RNA in all life forms cells.
Primary functions of RNA
The critical functions of RNA are listed below.
- Enables faster translation of DNA into proteins.
- Operates as a protein synthesising adaptor molecule.
- RNA acts as a messenger between the DNA and ribosomes.
- For all living organisms, RNA is the transmitter of genetic material.
- Encourages the ribosomes to select the amino acid needed to build new proteins in the body.