Structure of RNA

RNA is a ribonucleic acid that helps in the synthesis of proteins in our body. This nucleic acid is responsible for the production of new cells in the human body. It is usually obtained from the DNA molecule. RNA resembles same as that of DNA, the only difference being that it has a single strand unlike the DNA which has two strands and it consists of only single ribose sugar molecule in it. Hence is the name Ribonucleic acid. RNA is also referred to as a enzyme as it helps in the process of chemical reactions in the body.

Structure of RNA

Basic Structure of RNA

The basic structure of RNA is shown in the figure below-

The ribonucleic acid has all the components same to that of the DNA with only 2 main differences within it. RNA has the same nitrogen bases called the adenine, Guanine, Cytosine as that of the DNA except the Thymine which is replaced by the uracil. Adenine and uracil are considered as the major building blocks of RNA and both of them form base-pair with the help of 2 hydrogen bonds.

Structure of RNA

RNA resembles a hairpin structure and like the nucleotides in DNA, nucleosides are formed in this ribonucleic material(RNA). Nucleosides are nothing but the phosphate groups which sometimes also helps in the production of nucleotides in the DNA.

Functions of RNA

RNA has two major and basic functions as given below-

  • Firstly it assists the DNA and acts as a messenger between the DNA and the ribosomes.
  • Secondly it helps the ribosomes to choose the right amino acid which is required in building up of new proteins in the body.

RNA Types

There are two types of rna’s in the human body namely t-RNA and m-RNA i.e transfer RNA and messenger RNA.

  • m-RNA- As the name itself tells, this RNA is responsible to carry the genetic material to the ribosomes and insists as to what kind of proteins is required by the body. Hence it is called as messenger RNA. Usually this m-RNA is involved in the process of transcription or during the protein synthesis process.
  • t-RNA- The transfer RNA is held responsible for choosing the correct protein or the amino acid required by the body in-turn helping the ribosomes. It is located at the end points of the each amino acid. This is also called as soluble RNA and it forms a link between the messenger RNA and the amino acid.

Practise This Question

The (i)___, controls both the heart rate and the stroke volume. There are two separate nerves from the cardiovascular centre to the sinoatrial node: the (ii)___, to speed up the heart rate and the (iii)___, to slow it down. (i) receives information from special cells called (iv)___, present in the aortic arch and in the carotid sinus.