What are the main causes of mass movement?

Main causes of mass movements :

  • Removal of support from below to materials above through natural or artificial means. 
  • Increase in gradient and height of slopes.
  • Overloading through addition of materials naturally or by artificial filling.
  • Overloading due to heavy rainfall, saturation and lubrication of slope materials.
  • Removal of material or load from over the original slope surfaces.
  • Occurrence of earthquakes, explosions or machinery.
  • Excessive natural seepage.
  • Heavy drawdown of water from lakes, reservoirs and rivers leading to slow outflow of water from under the slopes or river banks.
  • Indiscriminate removal of natural vegetation 

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