What is Article 19 of the Indian Constitution?

 Article 19 of the Constitution provides for the following six freedoms:

(a) Freedom of speech and expression 

(b) Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms

(c) Freedom to form Associations and Unions 

(d) Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India 

(e) Freedom to reside and settle in any part of India 

(f) Freedom to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business

However, the Constitution has authorized the State to impose certain reasonable restrictions on each of them: 

  • Restrictions may be put on the Right to Freedom of speech and expression in the interests of the sovereignty, integrity and security of India, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence. 
  • The right to assemble peacefully and without arms may be restricted in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order. 
  • The right to form associations or unions may have restrictions in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, public order or morality. 
  • The right to move freely throughout the territory of India and to reside and settle in any part of India may also be restricted in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe. 
  • The right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business may have restrictions in the interests of the general public. The State is also permitted to lay down the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business.

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