A direct and inverse proportion are used to show how the quantities and amount are related to each other. These relations are governed by some proportionality rules. Here, the definition, examples and solved questions are given in detail for better understanding.
Direct and Inverse Proportion Definition
The proportion is said to be a direct proportion between two values when one is a multiple of the other.
For example, 1 cm is equal to 10 mm.
Here, in order to convert cm to mm, the multiplier should be 10.
Two quantities a and b are said to be in direct proportion if they increase or decrease together. In other words, the ratio of their corresponding values remains constant. This means that, a/ b = k
Where k is a positive number,
then the quantities a and b are said to vary directly.
In such a case if the values b1, b2 of b corresponding to the values a1, a2 of a respectively then it becomes
a1//b1 = a2 /b2
The direct proportion is also known as direct variation.
Direct Proportion Symbol
The symbol used to represent the direct proportion is “∝”.
Consider the statement,
a is directly proportional to b
This can be written using the symbol as:
a ∝ b
Consider the other statement, a = 2b
In this case, it shows that a is proportional to b, and the value of one variable can be found if the value of other variable is given.
Therefore, a = 2 x 7 = 14
Similarly, if you take the value of “a” as 14, you will find the value of b
14 = 2 x b
14/ 2 = b
The value is said to inversely proportional when one value increases and the other decreases. The proportionality symbol is used in a different way. Consider an example, we know that the more workers on a job would reduce the time to complete the task. It is represented as
Number of workers ∝ (1/ Time taken to complete the job)
Inverse Proportion Definition
Two quantities a and b are said to be in inverse proportion if an increase in the quantity a, there will be a decrease in the quantity b, and vice-versa. In other words, the product of their corresponding values should remain constant. Sometimes, it is also known as inverse variation
That is, if ab = k, then a and b are said to vary inversely. In this case, if b1, b2 are the values of b corresponding to the values a1, a2 of a respectively then a1 b1 = a2 b2 or a1/a2 = b2 /b1
The statement ‘a is inversely proportional to b is written as
a ∝ 1/b
Here, an equation is given that involves the inverse proportions that can be used to calculate the other values.
a = 25/b
Here a is inversely proportional to b
If one value is given, the other value can be easily found.
a= 25/10 = 2.5
Similarly, if a = 2.5, the value of b can be obtained.
2.5 = 25/b
b= 25/2.5 = 10
How to Set up an Equation?
- First, write down the proportional symbol
- Convert it as an equation using the constant of proportionality
- Find the constant of proportionality from the given information
- After finding the constant of proportionality, substitute in an equation.
Direct and Inverse Proportion Examples
Here, the example to understand the concept of direct and inverse proportion question with an answer is given in detail.
A train is moving at a uniform speed of 75 kilometres/hour.
(i)How many kilometres are covered by train in 20 minutes?
(ii) Find the time required to cover a distance of 250 kilometres.
Let the distance travelled (in km) in 20 minutes be a and time taken (in minutes) to cover 250 km be b.
|Distance travelled (in km)||75||a||250|
|Time taken (in minutes)||60||20||b|
We know that 1 hour = 60 minutes
Since the speed of the train is uniform, therefore, the distance covered would be directly proportional to time.
(i) We have 75 /60 = a /20
or (75 /60) 20 = a
or a = 25
So, the train will cover a distance of 25 kilometres in 20 minutes.
(ii) Also, 75/60=250/ b or
b=(250 x 60)/ 75
b = 200 minutes or 3 hours 20 minutes.
Therefore, 3 hours 20 minutes is required to cover a distance of 250 kilometres.
Alternatively, when a is known, then one can determine b, using the relation
a/20 =250/ b
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