Null Hypothesis

In mathematics, Statistics deals with the study of research and surveys on the numerical data. For taking surveys, we have to define the hypothesis. Generally, there are two types of hypothesis. One is a null hypothesis. Another one the alternate hypothesis. In this article, let us discuss in detail what is the null hypothesis and its types.

Null Hypothesis Definition

The null hypothesis is a kind of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data. This hypothesis either rejected or not rejected based on the viability of the given population or sample. In other words, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis in which the sample observations results from the chance. It is said to be a statement in which the surveyors wants to examine the data. It is denoted by H0.

Whereas the alternate hypothesis expresses the observations determined by the non-random cause. It is represented by H1 or Ha.

Null Hypothesis Principle

The principle followed for null hypothesis testing is collecting the data and determining the chances of a given set of data during the study on some random sample, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. In case if the given data does not face the expected null hypothesis, then the outcome will be quite weaker and they conclude by saying that the given set of data does not provide strong evidence against the null hypothesis because of insufficient evidence. Finally, the researchers tend to reject that.

Types of Null Hypothesis

There are different types of hypothesis. They are:

Simple Hypothesis

It completely specifies the population distribution. In this method, the sampling distribution is the function of the sample size.

Composite Hypothesis

The composite hypothesis is one that does not completely specify the population distribution.

Exact Hypothesis

Exact hypothesis defines the exact value of the parameter. For example μ= 50

Inexact Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis does not define the exact value of the parameter. But it denotes a specific range or interval. For example 45< μ <60

Null Hypothesis Rejection

Sometimes the null hypothesis is rejected too. If this hypothesis is rejected means, that research could be invalid. Many researchers will neglect this hypothesis as it is merely opposite to the alternate hypothesis. It is a better practice to create a hypothesis and test it. The goal of researchers is not to reject the hypothesis. But is evidence that a perfect statistical model is always associated with the failure to reject the null hypothesis.


If a medicine reduces the risk of cardiac stroke, then the null hypothesis should be “ the medicine does not reduce the chance of cardiac stroke. This testing can be performed by the administration of a drug to a certain group of people in a controlled way. If the survey shows that there is a significant change in the people, then the hypothesis is rejected.