In this chapter, we will learn the machinery or the system of government as given in the Indian Constitution. The solutions of Maharashtra Board Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 cover all the questions provided in the chapter. These solutions are prepared by subject matter experts who have a deep knowledge in this field. Students are advised to go through MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions Social Science Civics Chapter 1, so that they can face the exam confidently.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Choose the correct option and rewrite the statements.
1. Parliamentary System of government developed in …………. .
(c) United States of America
2. In the Presidential system ………… is the executive head.
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Lok Sabha Speaker
Answer 1: Parliamentary System of government developed in England.
Answer 2: In the Presidential system the President is the executive head.
Q2. Complete the information in the following table.
|Sl No||Name of the Institution||Functions|
|Sl No||Name of the Institution||Functions|
|1||Legislature||Law-making is the primary and most important function of the legislature.|
|2||Executive||The primary function of the executive is to enforce laws and to maintain law and order in the state.|
|3||Judiciary||The first and foremost function of the judiciary is to give justice to the people, whenever they may approach it.|
Q3. Explain the following statements with reasons.
1. India adopted the parliamentary system of government.
2. Discussion and deliberations are important in a parliamentary system of government.
Answer 1: India adopted the parliamentary system of government for several reasons. The development of parliamentary institutions started during the British rule. The British rulers governed in accordance with this system. The parliamentary system of government in India is also, in a way, a product of the freedom movement. Indians were familiar with this system of government. Many discussions took place in the Constituent Assembly over the system of government. The framers of the Constitution made few changes in the parliamentary system to suit the Indian situation. That is why, India adopted the parliamentary system of government.
Answer 2: Discussions and deliberations are an integral part of the parliamentary form of government. Questions related to public welfare are discussed in the legislature. Members from the opposition party also take part in these discussions. Opposition parties may support the government wherever appropriate, point out shortcomings in policies and laws, put up studied arguments and questions, etc. This helps the legislature to make proper laws.
Q4. Answer the following in 25 to 30 words.
1. What is a responsible government?
2. Enumerate the characteristics of the presidential system of government.
Answer 1: The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers is responsible to the legislature for all their actions and policies. It means that the Council of Ministers has to work with the legislature. It is for this reason that the parliamentary system is known as a ‘responsible system of government’.
Answer 2: The characteristics of the Indian Parliamentary system of government in India are:
- The Parliamentary system is a system of governance. The legislature of the Central government is known as the Parliament. The Indian Parliament is composed of President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
- Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. The number of members in the House is fixed.
- Elections to the Lok Sabha are held at regular intervals. All political parties contest these elections. The party which gets more than half of the seats is considered as the majority party. The majority party forms the government.
- Sometimes, when no party gets a clear majority, some parties come together to form a majority and they can establish the government. This kind of a government is known as a coalition government.
- In this way, candidates directly elected by people become members of the legislature and the party in majority gets a chance to form the government.
- The leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister. He/she selects candidates for ministerial positions from among his/her colleagues.
- The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers chosen by the Prime Minister together forms the ‘Executive’ in the Parliamentary system of government. In Parliamentary system, the Executive has a dual responsibility : (1) As an Executive they have to implement laws. (2) As they are the members of the legislature, they also have to fulfill responsibilities of the Legislature.
Q5. Why is the role of opposition parties important? Write your opinion.
Answer 1: The role of opposition parties is to make the government accountable to the public. With the help of continuous pressure that are allowed to exert, the opposition party can keep track that the government is working efficiently. Since all the bills and laws passed by the government are also revised by the opposition party, thus their opinion does matter as well. They help in rectifying the mistakes that the government overlooks.
Q6. Explain some features of the Parliamentary system of government.
Answer: These are some features of this system of government.
- In a presidential form of government, the legislature and the executive are not directly dependent on each other. The Houses of the Legislature and the President are directly elected by the people. The President is the executive head and has lot of powers including power to implement laws.
- In spite of such a structure, the legislature and the executive keep a check on each other. This mutual control over each other can lead to a responsible government.