During the modern period, the various happenings in Europe had its impact on India. Therefore, while studying the period of modern Indian history, we have to study the events happening in Europe during this period. The solutions mentioned in this article are well-crafted by subject matter experts. Students can fetch more marks in their exam by referring to these MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of Social Science Chapter 2. It covers all the textbook questions mentioned in the chapter.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options
(1) In 1453 the city of …………… was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
(2) The Industrial Revolution began in …………… .
(3) …………… tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of British.
(b) Mir Kasim
(c) Mir Jafar
(d) Shah Alam
Answer 1: In 1453 the city of Constantinople was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
Answer 2: The Industrial Revolution began in England.
Answer 3: Siraj-ud-Daulah tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of British.
2. Explain the following concepts.
(3) Age of Renaissance
Answer 1: Colonialism – Colonialism means one country exploiting another country by making it into a colony. A powerful country on the basis of economic and military strength occupies another region and establishes its political Supremacy. This is known as Colonialism. This tendency of Colonialism led to the rise of imperialism among the Europeans.
Answer 2: Imperialism – Imperialism means a system in which a powerful country controls other countries by establishing its overall domination and establishing many colonies. Many countries from Asian and African continent fell prey to this imperialist aspiration of the European Nations.
Answer 3: Age of Renaissance – In history of Europe, the last phase of the mediaeval period i.e. 13th to 16th century is known as the Period of renaissance. During this period of reformation, religious reform movement and geographical discoveries laid the foundation of the modern era. Hence, this period is also known as the ‘Age of Renaissance’. During this period, in the field of art, architecture, philosophy etc. there was a revival of Greek and Roman tradition, which gave momentum to overall development. During the Renaissance, humanitarianism was given great impetus. There was a change in the outlook of treating each other as human being. Instead of religion, man became the centre point of all ideologies.
Answer 4: Capitalism – With the discovery of new sea routes, began a new era of trade between Europe and Asia. Many traders came forward to trade with Eastern countries through the sea route. It was not easy to carry out trade single-handedly and hence, many traders came together and started trade. Thus, there was rise of many Trading Companies. Trade with Oriental countries was very profitable and responsible for economic prosperity. Hence, European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to these trading companies. This led to accumulation of wealth in Europe. This property was used in the form of capital for trade and Commerce which led to the rise of capitalist economic system in Europe.
Q3. Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Siraj-ud-Daulah was defeated in the Battle of Plassey.
(2) The European countries felt the necessity of finding new trade routes to Asia.
(3) European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies.
Answer 1: In 1756 AD, Siraj-ud- Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal. East India Company officers misused the trade concessions obtained from the Mughal Emperor in Bengal province. The English built fortification around the factory at Kolkata without the permission of the Nawab. Hence Siraj-ud-Daulah captured the factory at Kolkata. This created discontent in England. Robert Clive diplomatically bribed Mir Jafar, the Commander in chief of the Nawab’s army and also promised to make him the Nawab of Bengal. Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and the British Troops met at Plassey in 1757 AD. But under the leadership of Mir Jafar the Nawab’s army made no move to actually join the battle and hence Siraj-ud-Daulah was defeated.
Answer 2: With the discovery of new sea routes, began a new era of trade between Europe and Asia. Many traders came forward to trade with Eastern countries through the sea route. It was not easy to carry out trade single-handedly and hence many traders came together and started trade. Thus, there was rise of many Trading Companies. Trade with Oriental countries was very profitable and responsible for economic prosperity. Hence, European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to these trading companies. This led to accumulation of wealth in Europe.
Answer 3: In early history, East India Company was first built in Bengal in 1651. They started trading company and fought with several kingdoms of Bengal and captured most of Calcutta and built a fort on Hughli. The British nabobs who came from low-income families became very rich after entering into East India Company. The total economy of the country is increased by our resources. Hence, European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to these trading companies.
Q4. Complete the following table.
|Reached the tip of South Africa.|
|Reached the West coast of India at Calicut port.|
|Bortolomeu Dias||Reached the tip of South Africa.|
|Christopher Columbus||Reached America|
|Vasco Da Gama||Reached the West coast of India at Calicut port.|
Q5. Discuss the Industrial Revolution?
Answer: In the latter period of the 18th century, there were many technological innovations in Europe. There was production with the help of machines running on steam. The cottage industries were replaced by big factories. Machines came to be used instead of hand looms. Railway and steamer became the mode of transportation. The age of Machines began and that is known as the ‘Industrial Revolution’. Industrial Revolution began in England and then spread to other parts of the West. During this period England enjoyed industrial prosperity and came to be described as ‘World Factory’.