In this chapter, we are going to study the effects of British rule over India. The solutions provided in this article, cover all the questions from the chapter. Each solution is explained elaborately with proper examples and facts. By going through these solutions, students can get to understand important concepts and topics. So, students are advised to keep these MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of Social Science Chapter 3 handy, so that they can refer to it, whenever they find any difficulty solving textbook questions.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.
(1) Portuguese, ……………, French, British participated in the competition to capture the Indian market.
(2) In 1802 Peshwa …………… signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British.
(a) Bajirao I
(b) Sawai Madhavrao
(c) Peshwa Nanasaheb
(d) Bajirao II
(3) Jamshedji Tata started the manufacturing of steel at Tata Iron and Steel industry established in …………… .
Answer 1: Portuguese, Dutch, French, British participated in the competition to capture the Indian market.
Answer 2: In 1802 Peshwa Bajirao II signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British.
Answer 3: Jamshedji Tata started the manufacturing of steel in Tata Iron and Steel industry established in Jamshedpur.
Q2. Explain the following concepts.
(1) Civil Services
(2) Commercialisation of Agriculture
(3) Economic policy of British
Answer 1: Civil Services – To strengthen the British rule in India there was a need for bureaucrats. Lord Cornwallis introduced bureaucracy. Civil services became an important part of the British government. He restricted the private trade carried out by the company officers and for this purpose he increased their salaries. For the convenience of administration, he divided the British occupied territories into districts. The District Collector was the chief of district administration. He was responsible for the collection of revenue, giving justice, maintaining law and order. The officers were appointed through competitive examinations known as Indian Civil Services (ICS).
Answer 2: Commercialisation of Agriculture – Initially food grains were cultivated by the farmers. It used to fulfill their domestic needs as well as the needs of the village. The British Government started giving more encouragement to cash crops like cotton, indigo, tobacco, tea, etc. The process of giving stress on the cultivation of profit giving cash crops instead of food grains is known as the commercialisation of agriculture.
Answer 3: Economic policy of British – Since ancient times there have been invasions in India. Many invaders settled in India and were absorbed in the Indian culture. Even though they ruled here, they never made any changes in the basic Indian economic system. The Britishers were an exception. England was a modern nation. Due to the industrial revolution, the capitalist economy prevailed. Hence, they inculcated an economic system in India, which was conducive to the economic system in England. Due to this, Britishers gained economic benefit, but India started facing economic exploitation.
Q3. Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Farmers in India became bankrupt.
(2) There was decline of traditional industries in India.
Answer 1: There were undesirable effects of the new land revenue system of rural life. For payment of taxes, Indian farmers started selling the crops at whatever price it received. The merchants and brokers started purchasing their goods at a minimum rate. At certain times the farmer had to mortgage his land to the money lender for arrangement of money to pay the tax. Hence, farmers became bankrupt.
Answer 2: The British government obtained huge taxes on goods exported from India to England. On the other hand, very little tax was imposed on goods imported from England to India. Also, the goods manufactured in England were machine made and hence, there was a maximum production at minimum cost. To compete with such cheap products was difficult for the Indian artisans. Eventually, it led to closing down of traditional industries and many artisans became unemployed. In this way, traditional industries saw a decline in India.
Q4. Complete the following table.
|Passed Sati Prohibition Act|
|Established ‘Asiatic Society of Bengal’|
|Lord Cornwallis||Land Revenue Act|
|Lord William Bentinck||Passed Sati Prohibition Act|
|Lord Dalhousie||Doctrine of Lapse|
|William Jones||Established ‘Asiatic Society of Bengal’|
Q5. Explain development in transport and communication in the British era?
Answer: For increase in trade and convenience of administration, the British developed modern facilities like transport and communication in India. In 1853, first Railway ran on the route of Mumbai to Thane. In the same year British started Telegraph system in India. Due to it all cities and military stations got connected to one another. Similarly, the British also started the Postal System. Due to all these developments, there was a long term impact on the social life of the Indians. Due to this there was an increasing sense of unity among them.
Q6. Explain the consequences of Land Revenue Policy.
Answer: There were undesirable effects of the new land revenue system on rural life. For payment of taxes, Indian farmers started selling the crops at whatever price it received. The merchants and brokers started purchasing their goods at a minimum rate. At certain times the farmer had to mortgage his land to the money lender for arrangement of money to pay the tax. Farmer became bankrupt. In case of non repayment of loan, the farmer had to sell his land. The farmer was exploited by the government, zamindar, money lenders and merchants.