MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4: The Freedom Struggle of 1857 Textbook Questions and Solutions

In 1857, a great struggle took place in India, which completely shook the British Government. This struggle did not arise all of a sudden. Earlier as well, many such struggles had taken place in India against the British. While reading this chapter, students can take reference from MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of Social Science Chapter 4. All these solutions are accurately explained in a simple language, keeping in mind the understanding level of the students.

MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions

MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 Textbook Exercise Questions

Q1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

(Umaji Naik, War of Independence, Lord Dalhousie, Secretary of State, Tatya Tope)

(1) V.D.Savarkar named the struggle of 1857 as ………… .

(2) ………… united the Ramoshis to rebel against the British.

(3) After the struggle of 1857 the post of ………… Was created by the British Government to look after the affairs of India.

(4) ………… was the Governor General who annexed the princely states.

Answer 1: V.D.Savarkar named the struggle in 1857 as the War of Independence.

Answer 2: Umaji Naik united the Ramoshis to rebel against the British.

Answer 3: After the struggle of 1857 the post of Secretary of State was created in the British Government to look after the affairs of India.

Answer 4: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General who annexed the princely states.

Q2. Explain the following statements with reasons.

(1) The Paikas made armed rebellion against the British.

(2) There was discontent among the Hindu and Muslim sepoys.

(3) The Indian sepoys could not stand in front of the British army.

(4) After the struggle, the Indian army was divided on the basis of caste

(5) The British imposed heavy taxes on Indian industries.

Answer 1: From medieval times, there was a system of Paikas existing in Odisha. The standing army of various independent kings was known as ‘Paika’. Rent free lands were granted to them for cultivation by the king. The Paikas earned their livelihood through it. In return, they were supposed to stand by the king’s side in case of an eruption of war. In 1803, the English conquered Odisha. They took over the hereditary rent-free lands granted to the Paikas. This made the Paikas angry. Similarly, common man’s life had also become miserable because of the rise in salt price due to the tax imposed on it by the British. This resulted in an armed rebellion of Paikas against the British in 1817. Bakshi Jaganbandhu Bidyadhar led this revolt.

Answer 2: In 1856, the British provided long enfield rifles to the Indian sepoys. The sepoys were required to bite the end of the cartridges. The news spread out that these cartridges were smeared in the fats of cow and pig. Due to this the religious sentiments of Hindu and Muslim sepoys were hurt and made them unhappy.

Answer 3: Indian soldiers were brave but did not use tactics. They captured Delhi but could not retain it. Similarly, the Indian rebels had a limited armed supply. The British had economic strength, disciplined army, enough stock of the latest arms and experienced army generals. Since transport and communication were in the hands of the British, their movements were swift. Due to this the Indian sepoys could not succeed. Wars are fought not only based on bravery but also through military strategies.

Answer 4: The proportion of British soldiers was increased in the army. English officers were placed at strategic locations. Artillery was kept exclusively in the hands of the British. There was a division of the military on the basis of caste. Proper care was taken to avoid Indians to unite and rebel again against the British.

Answer 5: The British introduced a new revenue system to increase their income. Taxes were forcibly extracted from the farmers. As a result of it the agriculture system collapsed. To sell the British goods in India and enjoy profit was the policy of the British. They imposed heavy taxes on the local industries. The handicraft and textile industry of India were ruined. Many Indian artisans became unemployed. They were growing discontent in their mind against the British.

Q3. Answer the following questions in brief.

(1) What were the social causes behind the struggle of 1857?

(2) Why did the Indians fail in the struggle of 1857?

(3) Write down the consequences of the struggle of 1857.

(4) What were the changes in British policy after the struggle of 1857?

Answer 1: The Indians felt that the Britishers were interfering in the culture, tradition and customs of India. Salty prohibition, the widow remarriage act was correct from a social point of view, but the Indians thought that it was an interference in their lifestyle and hence, they were dissatisfied. These are the social causes behind the struggle of 1857.

Answer 2: The struggle of 1857 became unsuccessful due to the following reasons-

The struggle was not comprehensive: The struggle did not take place simultaneously all over India. Its intensity was more severe in North India, but Rajputana, Punjab, some parts of Bengal and North west India remained aloof.

Lack of central leadership: There was no commonly accepted leader to fight against the British. Due to this there was no uniformity in the struggle against British.

Most of the feudatory princes remained aloof: Just as the common people suffered due to British rule, similarly the princes also were suffering. But except a few others remained faithful to the British.

Lack of military tactics: Indian soldiers were brave but did not use tactics. They captured Delhi but could not retain it. Similarly, the Indian rebels had limited armed supply. The British had economic strength, disciplined army, enough stock of latest arms and experienced army generals. Since transport and communication was in the hands of British, their movements were swift. Due to this the Indian sepoys could not succeed. Wars are fought not only based on bravery but also through military strategies.

The international situation was favourable for Britishers: The Crimean war with Russia was just over. The British won the war. They had trade relations with different countries in the world. The naval strength of British was vast. Whereas the Indian rebels were isolated.

Answer 3: End of rule of East India Company: Due to the Company rule there was growing dissatisfaction among the Indians and the British rule had to face the struggle of 1857. It forced the British Parliament to end the rule of the Company and instead take over the responsibility of ruling over the people of India through the Government of India Act 1858. The Governor General was now designated as the Viceroy of India. Lord Canning happened to be the last Governor General and the first Viceroy of India. A new post called Secretary of State was created in the British Government to look after the affairs of India.

Queen’s Proclamation: Queen Victoria of England issued a Declaration addressing the people of India. All Indians are our progeny. Henceforth, they will not be discriminated against on the basis of race, religion, caste or birth place. Government services will be given on merit. There will be no interference in religious affairs. It was made clear that the British crown will honour all treaties and agreements made by the company with the rulers of princely states and no princely state will be annexed henceforth.

Change in composition of army: The proportion of British soldiers was increased in the army. English officers were placed at strategic locations. Artillery was kept exclusively in the hands of the British. There was division of military on the basis of caste. Proper care was taken to avoid Indians to unite and rebel again against the British.

Change in Policy: The British accepted the policy of non-interference in social and religious aspects of Indians. They also started taking care that the Indian society will not be united on social grounds. They saw to it that there will be constant conflicts on grounds of caste, religion, race, territory etc. They adopted the policy of polluting the minds of Indians by following the ‘Divide and Rule policy’.

Answer 4: The British accepted the policy of non interference in social and religious aspects of Indians. They also started taking care that the Indian society will not be united on social grounds. They saw to it that there will be constant conflicts on grounds of caste, religion, race, territory, etc. They adopted the policy of polluting the minds of Indians by following the ‘Divide and Rule policy’. Due to the freedom struggle of 1857, the Indians were motivated to put up a united fight against the British rule. The freedom struggle of 1857 became an inspiration for the Indian freedom movement.

 

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