After the resolution of Complete Independence was passed in the Lahore session, Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. Before beginning this movement, Gandhiji put up various demands in front of the British Government. One of the important demands was to cancel the salt tax and the monopoly of British Government for the manufacture of salt. In these solutions provided below, we have covered all the concepts related to the Chapter 8: Civil Disobedience Movement. Students should be thorough with these MSBSHSE Class 8 solutions of Social Science History Chapter 8 to feel confident while writing their final exam.
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 Objective Questions: Textbook Important Questions and Solutions
MSBSHSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 Textbook Exercise Questions
Q1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.
(Mahatma Gandhi, Khuda-i-Khidmatgar, Ramsay Mac Donald, Sarojini Naidu)
(1) …………. organised the Round Table Conference in London.
(2) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan established the organisation named _________.
(3) ………… led the Dharasana Satyagraha.
(4) In the Second Round Table Conference ………… participated as a representative of Indian National Congress.
Answer 1: Ramsay Mac Donald organised the Round Table Conference in London.
Answer 2: Khan Abdul Gafar Khan established the organisation named Khuda-i-Khidmatgar.
Answer 3: Mahatma Gandhi led the Dharasana Satyagraha.
Answer 4: In the Second Round Table Conference Sarojini Naidu participated as a representative of Indian National Congress.
Q2. Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Chandrasingh Thakur was court martialled and severely punished.
(2) The Government declared Martial Law at Solapur.
(3) The deliberations in the First Round Table Conference proved to be meaningless.
(4) Gandhiji began fast unto death in the Yerwada jail.
Answer 1: Gandhi started the salt satyagraha movement against the British. Khan Abdul Gafar Khan was the most loyal follower of Mahatma Gandhi. He was also known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’. He had founded the organisation called ‘Khuda-i-Khidmatgar’. On 23 April 1930, he started satyagraha at Peshawar. The town was in the hands of the satyagrahis for nearly a week. The British Government gave orders to the Garhwal regiment to carry out open firing on the Satyagrahis, but Chandrasing Thakur, an officer of Garhwal Regiment, refused to open fire. He was court martialed and was given a severe punishment.
Answer 2: The mill workers were on the forefront in the Solapur satyagraha. On 6 May 1930, hartal was observed in Solapur. A huge procession was organised in Solapur. The District Collector gave orders of firing on the procession. Many volunteers along with Shankar Shivdare died in the firing. As a result, people started attacking police stations, railway stations, courts, municipal buildings, etc. The Government declared Martial Law and the agitation was suppressed. Those who took lead in this movement, such as Mallappa Dhanshetti, Shrikrishna Sarda, Qurban Hussain and Jagannath Shinde were hanged to death.
Answer 3: Ramsay MacDonald was the chairman of the Round Table Conference. Representatives of England and India participated in the Conference. These included Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Barrister Jinnah etc. In the conference there were discussions on various topics such as Responsible Government at central level, establishment of federal State in India etc. Representatives of different political parties in India and rulers of Princely states participated in the conference. However, the Indian National Congress did not participate in it. The Indian National Congress was a body that represented the country. Without its participation, the deliberations in the Round Table Conference were indeed meaningless.
Answer 4: Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar represented the Dalits in the Round Table Conference. He demanded separate electorates for the Dalits. After the Second Round Table Conference the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald declared ‘Communal Awards’. According to it, Dalits were given separate electorates. Gandhiji went on fast unto death at Yerwada jail protesting against the granting of separate electorate on the basis of caste.
Q3. Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words.
(1) Why did Gandhiji decide to break the Salt Act to begin the satyagraha all over the country?
(2) Why did the Indian National Congress withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer 1: Salt is an important ingredient in the food of common people. Hence it was unjust to impose tax on an essential commodity like salt. Therefore, Gandhiji started the Salt Satyagraha. Salt Satyagraha was symbolic. The extensive objective behind it was to break the oppressive and unjust laws of the British Government through peace and Satyagraha.
Gandhi chose Dandi, a seashore, in Gujarat to begin the Salt Satyagraha. On 12 March 1930 Gandhiji set out from Sabarmati Ashram with 78 followers for launching the Salt Satyagraha. A distance of approximately 385 km was covered on foot and Gandhiji delivered speeches in the villages on the way. Due to Gandhi’s speeches, message of Civil Disobedience Movement spread everywhere and a favourable atmosphere was created. On 5 April 1930, Gandhi reached Dandi. On 6 April Gandhiji broke the salt act by picking up the salt laying on the sea shore of Dandi and the Civil Disobedience Movement started all over the country.
Q4. Complete the following timeline of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
|12 March 1930|
|6 April 1930|
|23 April 1930|
|4 May 1930|
|6 May 1930|
|12 March 1930||Beginning of Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram|
|6 April 1930||End of Salt March at Dandi|
|23 April 1930||Arrest of Khan Abdul Gaffar leader of the Khuda I Khidmatgar movement|
|4 May 1930||Gandhji was arrested under the regulation of 1827, at Karadi near Dandi|
|6 May 1930||A severe outburst of people regarding the arrest of Gandhi, killing 20 people.|
Q5. Discuss the features of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer: Features of Civil Disobedience Movement :
- All the movements, till now, were limited only to urban areas. However, this movement became a nationwide movement. People from rural areas registered their participation.
- Women also took part in large numbers. Kasturba Gandhi, Kamladevi Chattopadhyay, Avantikabai Gokhale, Lilavati Munshi, Hansaben Mehta led the satyagraha.
- This movement was based on complete non violence. The British Government was trying to greatly suppress the movement, but the people protested unarmed. Due to this the Indian people became fearless.