NCERT Solutions are contemplated as an exceptionally helpful book while preparing for the CBSE Class 12 Economics Board examinations. This study resource possesses an intense knowledge and the Solutions collated by the subject matter experts are no different.
NCERT Solution for Class 12 Economics Chapter 2 – National Income Accounting gives a brief presentation about the subject. This chapter provides brief information about the goods, types of goods, cash flow, investments, etc.
Access NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Economics Chapter 2 – National Income Accounting
NCERT Macroeconomics Solutions Class 12 Chapter 2
1. What are the four factors of production and what are the remunerations to each of these called?
Land, Labour, Capital and Entrepreneurship are the four factors of production.
i) The land is a natural resource and the primary factor of production. Land rent is the remuneration paid for the use of land.
ii) Labour is the physical or mental work done by an employee that is required for production. The remuneration for labour is paid through wages or salary.
iii) Capital is the wealth or monetary investment that is essential for production. Capital can also mean the assisting tools, the machinery and other means of production. The remuneration for capital is called interest.
iv) Entrepreneurship refers to the task of the individual who brings all the factors of production together and manages them. The remuneration or reward of the entrepreneur is the profit that is gained after the product is sold.
2. Why should the aggregate final expenditure of an economy be equal to the aggregate factor payments? Explain.
The aggregate final expenditure of an economy is the sum of all the spending in the economy. In economics, factor payment denotes the wage, interest, rent and other payments done as a remuneration for the factors or production. The income earned is either spent on goods on services or saved. But, all savings can be counted as investments for future expenditure. Therefore, the aggregate final expenditure of an economy should be equal to aggregate factor payments.
3. Distinguish between stock and flow. Between net investment and capital which is a stock and which is a flow? Compare net investment and capital with flow of water into a tank.
The difference between stock and flow are as follows
|Stocks are defined at a point in time||Flows are defined over a period of time|
|Stocks are a static concept||Flows are a dynamic concept|
|It does not have a time dimension||It has a time dimension|
|Examples: Wealth, Money supply, etc.||Examples: National Income, Investments, etc.|
The difference between net investment and capital is explained below
|Capital is tied to liquidity||Investment is tied to equity|
|Capital is a stock variable||Net Investment is a flow variable|
|Capital is on the liabilities side of the balance sheet||Investment is on the assets side of the balance sheet|
Since it is measured over a period of time, flow of water in a tank can be compared to net investment. Stock of water in a tank is measured at a point in time and can be compared to capital.
4. What is the difference between planned and unplanned inventory accumulation? Write down the relation between change in inventories and value added of a firm.
Planned inventory accumulation is the planned accumulation of inventories and stocks. Firms often experience an accumulation in their inventories based on the expected fall in sales or projected fall of demand from the consumers. Unplanned inventory accumulation happens when the inventories and stocks get accumulated due to an unexpected fall in sales and demand.
5. Write down the three identities of calculating the GDP of a country by the three methods. Also briefly explain why each of these should give us the same value of GDP.
The three methods of identifying GDP of a nation are:
1. Expenditure Method
2. Income Method
3. Value added Method or Product Method
Expenditure Method: In the expenditure method, national Income is calculated based on the expenditure done on purchase of final goods and services that are produced in the economy.
The formulae for calculating GDP is
GDP = C + I + G + (X – M)
C=Consumer spending on goods and services
I=Investor spending on business capital goods
G=Government spending on public goods and services
GDP – Depreciation = Net Domestic Product
NDP – Net Indirect Tax – = NDP
NDP + NFIA = National Income
Where NDP= Net Domestic Product
NFIA = Net Factor Income from Abroad
Income Method: Income Method: This method is used to determine national income generated from the factors of production like capital, labour, land and profits of organisation. Another factor added is mixed income that is income generated from self-employed persons, farming and sole proprietorship firms.
Therefore national income can be calculated as:
Net Domestic Income = Compensation +Interest + Rent + Profit + Mixed income
Net Domestic Income + NFIA (Net Factor Income from Abroad) = Net Domestic Income.
Product Method: In this method which is also known as value added method, the income is measured as per value addition by the products of firms. It is calculated as the summation of Gross Value Added in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.
Net Domestic Product = GDP – Depreciation
NDP at Factor Cost = NDPMP – Net Indirect Tax
NDP at factor cost + NFIA = National Income
Where NDP= Net Domestic Product
NFIA = Net Factor Income from Abroad
6. Define budget deficit and trade deficit. The excess of private investment over saving of a country in a particular year was Rs 2,000 crores. The amount of budget deficit was (−) Rs 1,500 crores. What was the volume of trade deficit of the country?
Budget deficit is referred to the situation when the expenditure done by government exceeds its income.
Budget Deficit is mathematically represented as G − T
G is the expenditure done by government
T is the income earned by the government
When a country spends more on importing than on earning revenue through exports, such a situation is referred to as trade deficit
Trade Deficit is represented as M − X
M expenditure on imports
X revenue earned from exports
As per the question
I − S = Rs.2000 crores.
G – T = (−) Rs.1500 crores.
Therefore, trade deficit can be calculated as
Trade deficit = [I − S] + [G − T]
= 2000 + [−1500]
= Rs.500 crores.
7. Suppose the GDP at market price of a country in a particular year was Rs 1,100 crores. Net Factor Income from Abroad was Rs 100 crores. The value of Indirect taxes − Subsidies was Rs 150 crores and National Income was Rs 850 crores. Calculate the aggregate value of depreciation.
8. Net National Product at Factor Cost of a particular country in a year is Rs 1,900 crores. There are no interest payments made by the households to the firms/government, or by the firms/government to the households. The Personal Disposable Income of the households is Rs 1,200 crores. The personal income taxes paid by them is Rs 600 crores and the value of retained earnings of the firms and government is valued at Rs 200 crores. What is the value of transfer payments made by the government and firms to the households?
9. From the following data, calculate Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income.
|(a)||Net Domestic Product at factor cost||8,000|
|(b)||Net Factor Income from abroad||200|
|(e)||Interest Received by Households||1,500|
|(f)||Interest Paid by Households||1,200|
10. In a single day Raju, the barber, collects Rs 500 from haircuts; over this day, his equipment depreciates in value by Rs 50. Of the remaining Rs 450, Raju pays sales tax worth Rs 30, takes home Rs 200 and retains Rs 220 for improvement and buying of new equipment. He further pays Rs 20 as income tax from his income. Based on this information, complete Raju’s contribution to the following measures of income (a) Gross Domestic Product (b) NNP at market price (c) NNP at factor cost (d) Personal income (e) Personal disposable income.
(i) Gross Domestic Product or GDP = Rs.500 (This is the earning by Raju in a day from haircuts)
(ii) NNP at market price or NNPMP = GDP – Depreciation
Putting the values of GDP and depreciation we get NNPMP
= 500 − 50
(iii) NNP at factor cost or NNPFC = NNPMP − Sales tax
Here NNPMP = 450
Sales Tax= 30
Therefore NNPFC is
= 450 − 30
(iv)Personal Income or PI = NNPFC − Retained earnings
Here NNPFC = 420
Retained earnings = 220
Therefore, Personal Income is
= 420 − 220
(v) Personal Disposable Income or PDI = PI − Income tax
Putting values of PI and Income Tax we get PDI is
= 200 − 20
11. The value of the nominal GNP of an economy was Rs 2,500 crores in a particular year. The value of GNP of that country during the same year, evaluated at the prices of same base year, was Rs 3,000 crores. Calculate the value of the GNP deflator of the year in percentage terms. Has the price level risen between the base year and the year under consideration?
12. Write down some of the limitations of using GDP as an index of welfare of a country.
There are various limitations to using GDP as a measure of the welfare of a country. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is the total aggregate value of all goods and services produced within the boundaries of a country or an economy. GDP can be a good indicator of a country’s economic size, growth and value. It is essentially a total measure of all the economic activities taking place in the economy. The relationship between welfare and GDP is contested and not conclusive. Here are some reasons why GDP cannot be a measure of welfare in a country.
i) GDP gives us only a measure of the total income of an economy. It does not provide us any details about how the earned income is distributed between the people. In countries with a high rate of inequality, a growth in GDP disproportionately benefits the wealthy, leaving the average person with less benefits.
ii) GDP does not take into account the environmental costs of production and development. A factory causing environmental degradation and pollution might be contributing to the GDP, but the long-term costs and consequences of such production is not taken into account in the GDP calculation. Therefore, the GDP value of an economy is not a reflection of environmental welfare.
iii) Consumption and spending does not necessarily mean ‘well-being’ for the people. The citizens of a country could be spending more and raising their income, but other factors like access to healthcare, education are essential for their well-being. GDP does not speak for the average citizen’s Standard of living and Quality of Life.
iv) There are several socioeconomic factors like gender development, literacy, freedom and equality which play a part in the overall welfare of a society. GDP ignores these factors of social progress and human development.
Chief concepts of this chapter –
- What is Final goods? – These are the goods that are ready for use by the final users which have crossed the border line of production.
- Net Investment – Gross Investment – Depreciation (Consumption of fixed capital)
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