Flashcards for NEET Chemistry - Hydrocarbons

Flashcards for NEET Chemistry are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for the chapter “Hydrocarbons”. These flashcards are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. These are helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams, during last-minute revision. It covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Chemistry.

Download PDF of NEET Chemistry Flashcards for Hydrocarbons

Name of the NEET Sub-section

Topic

Flashcards Helpful for

Chemistry

Hydrocarbons

NEET Exams

flashcards for neet chemistry nov16 hydrocarbons 1
flashcards for neet chemistry nov16 hydrocarbons 2
flashcards for neet chemistry nov16 hydrocarbons 3
flashcards for neet chemistry nov16 hydrocarbons 4

   

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons

Compounds of carbon and hydrogen

Saturated hydrocarbons – have carbon-carbon single bonds

Unsaturated hydrocarbons – have carbon-carbon multiple bonds

Wurtz Reaction

Used for the preparation of higher alkanes

Alkyl halides, on treatment with sodium metal in dry ethereal solution, give higher alkanes containing an even number of carbon atoms

Halogenation of Alkanes

Free radical chain mechanism

Rate of reaction of alkanes with halogens is F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

Rate of replacement of hydrogens of alkanes is 3° > 2° > 1°

Controlled Oxidation of Alkanes

Alkanes give a variety of oxidation products with suitable catalysts, e.g.

  1. CH4 ⟶ CH3OH with Cu/523K/100atm
  2. CH4 ⟶ HCHO with Mo2O3 + Δ
  3. C2H6 ⟶ CH3COOH with (CH3COO)2Mn

Markovnikov Rule

Addition of hydrogen halides to unsymmetrical alkenes

The negative part of the addendum

(hydrogen halide, here) gets attached to the carbon atom having a lesser number of hydrogen atoms

Peroxide or Kharash Effect

Anti Markovnikov addition of HBr to unsymmetrical alkenes. It proceeds via free radical chain mechanism

Alkane

Containing carbon-carbon single bonds

General formula – CnH2n+2

Carbon is sp3 hybridised

C-C bond length is 154 pm and bond enthalpy 348 kJ mol-1

H-C-H bond angles are of 109.5°

Alkene

Containing carbon-carbon double bonds

General formula – CnH2n

Carbon is sp2 hybridised

C=C bond length is 134 pm and bond enthalpy 681 kJ mol-1

Alkyne

Containing carbon-carbon triple bonds

General formula – CnH2n-2

Carbon is sp hybridised

C≡C bond length is 120 pm and bond enthalpy 823 kJ mol-1

H-C-C bond angle – 180°

Aromaticity

Ring system satisfying these criteria:

– planar structure

– complete delocalisation of the π electrons

– (4n + 2) π electrons, where n is an integer (n = 0, 1, 2, . . .) (Hückel Rule)

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reaction

Benzene is treated with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride to form alkyl benzene

C6H6 + CH3Cl ⟶ Toluene (C6H5CH3)+ HCl

Substitution in Mono-substituted Benzene

Ortho and para directing groups:

–OH, –NHR, –OCH3, –CH3, –C2H5, –NH2, –NHCOCH3, etc.

Meta directing groups: –NO2, –CN, –CHO, –COR, –COOH, –COOR, –SO3H, etc.

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Stability and Rearrangement of Carbocations Class 11 & 12 Chemistry | NEET 2022 Chemistry Exam Prep

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